Higher education – the area a young individual decides to graduate/post-graduate in – is perhaps one of the most important choices a person makes during his/her lifetime. A choice at this juncture determines the course of one of the largest investments in terms of time, money and commitment a person could make. Such an important decision needs considerable thinking on the part of the individual. ‘Why do I want to do this educational programme?’ is a question that needs to be answered. At a later point in life, some individuals may feel repentance on his/her wrong choice of higher education at the degree/P.G. level. The ‘too-late’ realization with a feeling of disillusionment is a direct outcome of unconsidered early-life decisions relating to higher education and subsequent career/profession. When faced with the question of what to do in life, the result usually may fall into two categories: He/she may do what others want him/her to do or do what everybody around him/her seems to be doing. The compulsion to get into one field of study or another field of study usually comes from the individual’s parents or / and people around him/her. This may happen especially in the case of professional courses.
If we ask any MBA aspirant why he/she wants to do MBA, the answers may follow predictable lines. Usually, everyone wants to work in a multinational/national company and earn a fat salary, or is preparing for it since friends are into it. A few may actually know what to expect from the profession.… Read the rest
Do you struggle to keep your business’s financial affairs in order? It’s an area that can cause many difficulties for a business owner or the decision makers in a company. However, there are many ways you can address this issue, so that you can focus on the more productive aspects of your organization. Below are some of the main ways to ensure that a business’s finances are kept in order.
Every business must adhere to a wide range of tax laws and regulations. However, this is an area that keeps changing and evolving. It’s crucial to keep up-to-date with the latest taxation developments, so it’s advisable for you or someone in your company to increase their taxation knowledge by taking an appropriate taxation course provided by a college or university like Northeastern University.
Thanks to a range of online master of science in taxation programs, this is not as difficult or disruptive as it sounds. An online MST program can be completed over the internet, which means that a student can study at home, at work, or from any location that suits them. As well as this, you can study at times that suit your current lifestyle, which means you can carry on working as normal.
Hire the Right People
It’s vital to hire financial professionals who know exactly what they are doing. Some businesses may only require a single financial expert, while larger organizations need a wide range of financial professionals including accountants, bookkeepers and financial advisors. Make sure you have a strict hiring process that ensures that only the best financial experts work for you, because these are the people who could make or break your business in the future.… Read the rest
It’s vital for a business to develop as many external contacts as possible. This simple approach can lead to valuable relationships and opportunities that would not otherwise have occurred. Below are some of the best ways you can develop relationships with individuals and organizations outside of your business.
Develop Your Communication Skills and Communication Channels
Before you reach out to certain individuals and organizations, it’s important to prepare properly and have the skills and knowledge required for communicating in an effective way. For instance, if you want to interact with local government representatives and agencies in a more productive way, you may need to hire a consultant or someone who has completed an online masters in public administration and who has a great working relationship with the public sector.
In other situations, it may be a good idea for you or someone in your organization to enroll in an online master in public administration degree course or similar program provided by universities like Norwich University, so that you have a permanent person in your company who can deal with government entities that can help your business.
Attend Networking Events
Most people prefer to deal with other individuals and businesses they are familiar with. This means you and your business need to get public exposure. Attending networking events like Chamber of Commerce meetings, conferences, and industry seminars is an effective way to do this. The more times you are seen at these events, the more people will become familiar with you and start to trust you.… Read the rest
Data mining has an important place in today’s world. It becomes an important research area as there is a huge amount of data available in most of the applications. This huge amount of data must be processed in order to extract useful information and knowledge, since they are not explicit. Data Mining is the process of discovering interesting knowledge from large amount of data.
The kinds of patterns that can be discovered depend upon the data mining tasks employed. By and large, there are two types of data mining tasks: descriptive data mining tasks that describe the general properties of the existing data, and predictive data mining tasks that attempt to do predictions based on inference on available data. The data mining functionalities and the variety of knowledge they discover are briefly presented in the following list:
- Characterization: It is the summarization of general features of objects in a target class, and produces what is called characteristic rules. The data relevant to a user-specified class are normally retrieved by a database query and run through a summarization module to extract the essence of the data at different levels of abstractions. For example, one may wish to characterize the customers of a store who regularly rent more than movies a year. With concept hierarchies on the attributes describing the target class, the attribute oriented induction method can be used to carry out data summarization. With a data cube containing summarization of data, simple OLAP operations fit the purpose of data characterization.
- Discrimination: Data discrimination produces what are called discriminant rules and is basically the comparison of the general features of objects between two classes referred to as the target class and the contrasting class.
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Data mining involves the use of sophisticated data analysis tools to discover previously unknown, valid patterns and relationships in large data sets. These tools can include statistical models, mathematical algorithms, and machine learning methods such as neural networks or decision trees. Consequently, data mining consists of more than collecting and managing data, it also includes analysis and prediction. The objective of data mining is to identify valid, novel, potentially useful, and understandable correlations and patterns in existing data. Finding useful patterns in data is known by different names (e.g., knowledge extraction, information discovery, information harvesting, data archaeology, and data pattern processing).
The term “data mining” is primarily used by statisticians, database researchers, and the business communities. The term KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) refers to the overall process of discovering useful knowledge from data, where data mining is a particular step in this process. The steps in the KDD process, such as data preparation, data selection, data cleaning, and proper interpretation of the results of the data mining process, ensure that useful knowledge is derived from the data. Data mining is an extension of traditional data analysis and statistical approaches as it incorporates analytical techniques drawn from various disciplines like AI, machine learning, OLAP, data visualization, etc.
Data Mining covers variety of techniques to identify nuggets of information or decision-making knowledge in bodies of data, and extracting these in such a way that they can be. Put to use in the areas such as decision support, prediction, forecasting and estimation. The data is often voluminous, but as it stands of low value as no direct use can be made of it; it is the hidden information in the data that is really useful.… Read the rest
Like other information systems, RFID systems are vulnerable to attack and can be compromised at various stages. Generally the attacks against a RFID system can be categorized into four major groups: attacks on authenticity, attacks on integrity, attacks on confidentiality, and attacks on availability. Besides being vulnerable to common attacks such as eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle and denial of service, RFID technology is, in particular, susceptible to spoof and power attacks. This section illustrates the different kinds of attacks on RFID systems.
- Eavesdropping: Since an RFID tag is a wireless device that emits a unique identifier upon interrogation by a RFID reader, there exists a risk that the communication between tag and reader can be eavesdropped. Eavesdropping occurs when an attacker intercepts data with any compliant reader for the correct tag family and frequency while a tag is being read by an authorized RFID reader. Since most RFID systems use clear text communication due to tag memory capacity or cost, eavesdropping is a simple but efficient means for the attacker to obtain information on the collected tag data. The information picked up during the attack can have serious implications – used later in other attacks against the RFID system.
- Man-in-the-Middle Attack: Depending on the system configuration, a man-in-the-middle attack is possible while the data is in transit from one component to another. An attacker can interrupt the communication path and manipulate the information back and forth between RFID components. This is a real-time threat. The attack will reveal the information before the intended device receives it and can change the information en route.
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