Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over or competition. This contrasts with free trade, where no artificial barriers to entry are instituted.
Protectionism has frequently been associated with economic theories such as mercantilism, the belief that it is beneficial to maintain a positive trade balance, and import substitution. There are two main variants of protectionism, depending on whether the tariff is intended to be collected (traditional protectionism) or not (modern protectionism).
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- Modern protectionism: In the modern trade arena many other initiatives besides tariffs have been called protectionist. For example some economists see developed countries’ efforts in imposing their own labor or environmental standards as protectionism. Also, the imposition of restrictive certification procedures on imports are seen in this light. Recent examples of protectionism are typically motivated by the desire to protect the livelihoods of individuals in politically important domestic industries.
In almost all the products, for which the pre-shipment inspection scheme has been introduced, great care has been taken to accept the buyer’s requirements, wherever known, as the basis of inspection. In many cases, where the buyer’s requirements are known through-an approved sample of, for example, footwear or handicrafts, inspection is carried out on the basis of the approved sample. However, for items involving safety, such as cables and conductors, only the national standards, either Indian or those of the importing country, have been adopted. In the case of commodities involving health hazard, such as fish and fishery products, statutory laws as applicable in the importing country for these products, are adhered to. This particular approach has been found to be extremely practical and has helped the exporters to maintain the quality of their products. For adopting or establishing technical specifications, detailed discussions are held with the trade and industry and other organizations, such as the Indian Standards Institution and the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection.… Read More »
In today’s sophisticated world market, a product can move with any measure of success only if it is competitive enough in price and quality. Our export can be sustained and improved only be raising the quality of our product as it would be very difficult to reduce the price in our present day high-cost economy, with a view to achieve this objective of raising the quality of our export products, the Government of India enacted the legislation entitled “The Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act” in the year 1963, and the Export Inspection Council was also set up with effect from 1st January, 1964. The main function of the Export Inspection Council is to advise the government with regard to measures to be taken for quality control and pre-shipment inspection of exportable commodities.
No Consignment of any notified commodity can be exported unless it is accompanied by a certificate issued by a recognized inspection agency or the article carries a recognized mark indicting that it conforms to the standard specifications.… Read More »
Counter trade constitutes an estimated 5 to 30 percent of total world trade. Counter trade greatly proliferated in the 1980s. Perhaps, the single most important contributing factor is Least Developed Countries (LDC’s) decreasing ability to finance their import needs through bank loans.
Counter trade, one of the oldest forms of trade, is a government mandate to pay for goods and services with something other than cash. It is a practice, which requires a seller as a condition of sale, to commit contractually to reciprocate and undertake certain business initiatives that compensate and benefit the buyer. In short, a goods-for-goods deal is counter trade. Unlike monetary trade, suppliers are required to take customers’ products for their use or for resale. In most cases, there are multiple deals that are separate yet related, and a contract links these separable transactions. Counter trade may involve several products, and such products may move at different points in time while involving several countries. Monetary payments’ may or may not be part of the deal.… Read More »