Role of Leadership in Organizations
Leadership has been described as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. A definition more inclusive of followers comes from Alan Keith of Genentech who said “Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen.”
In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders, employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. During drastic change times, employees will expect effective and sensible planning, confident and effective decision-making, and regular, complete communication that is timely. Also during these times of change, employees will perceive leadership as supportive, concerned and committed to their welfare, while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. The existence of this trust brings hope for better times in the future, and that makes coping with drastic change much easier.
In organizations characterized by poor leadership, employees expect nothing positive. In a climate of distrust, employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. Poor leadership means an absence of hope, which, if allowed to go on for too long, results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change, but more importantly, must labor under the weight of employees who have given up, have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around.… Read the rest
Confidence is a funny thing – sometimes it’s difficult to imagine why someone doesn’t feel confident about their ability to handle a situation when we know they could easily do it.
A key issue to understand is that inside all of us there’s a voice which determines how we react to many of life’s situations. It’s a voice which tells us which things we’re good at and which things we’re likely to fail at.
It’s a voice we generate ourselves based on many years of experience of life. Very often it can be helpful but it can also be a great handicap.
Never underestimate the power of positive thinking. Every day we hear about human achievements which initially, people probably scoffed at and said ‘You’ll never do it!’ However when someone really believes in their ability to deliver, they often make it.
Most people go through their lives at a level of personal achievement far below what they could really do. This is mostly because no one has ever taken the time to nurture or encourage them.
The greater the ability someone has to attain their full potential the better the chance they will perform at their highest level and ultimately succeed.
What does success mean?
Different people measure success differently, some people’s views of success are:
- For many it will be money, power, or material possessions
- Or perhaps promotion and the enhanced status that comes with it
- Others will judge their success in life by their ability to influence their surroundings in a much broader sense, for example, improving the environment
- Others will especially value relationships with their immediate circle of family, friends or colleagues
- Many people find satisfaction in helping, either materially or spiritually, people less able than themselves, or those who are disadvantaged in some way.
… Read the rest
In recent decades, outsourcing has emerged as a major trend in human resources all over the world. It has become the practice in where certain job functions are sent outside of a company instead of performing them in house. Day by day, more and more companies are focusing on outsourcing as an easy way to grow as well as reducing overhead and payroll costs.
In the simplest terms outsourcing can be described as farming out of different services to third parties. For example in case of information technology, outsourcing includes any task such as outsourcing all kinds of management of IT to HP or IBM, or even outsourcing a very easy and small task, such as data storage, data editing, disaster recovery or, and any task in between. No precise definition of outsourcing can be found. The term is often used in an inconsistent way.
Outsourcing is often involved contracting out of business activities to an external provider. Outsourcing is any job, task, process or operation, which could be done by the internal employees of an organisation, but instead of doing so; such companies contract a third party to perform the task. In addition, the tasks which are done by the third party may be done off-site or on-site. In recent years one of the major changes has occurred from the growth of individuals outsourcing as a way to develop a feasible service providing business that can be operated virtually from anywhere in the world using internet and online technologies. Some common areas of this business are marketing services, website creating, analysis and etc.… Read the rest
Although the concept of outsourcing has been around for decades, it gained momentum during the 90’s when managers started realizing that in order to stay competitive in the market they needed to transfer non-core functions to external specialists. During the initial years, the cost saving aspect was the most important reason companies chose to outsource, but these days a wide range of benefits act as the driving factor for outsourcing. Therefore, the decision to outsource is not a sole purchasing or financial decision, but often it is based on major strategic issues implying enormous organisational changes.
Advantages of Outsourcing
With the benefits of outsourcing a company will be able to see big increase in its profits, productivity and level of quality, business value, business performance and much more. Some of the advantages of outsourcing are listed below;
- Reduction and Control of Cost: Outsourcing helps companies reduce their cost on resource management labour, space, etc. According to Accenture, outsourcing leads to a cost saving of 25% to 30% while outsource partners international estimate the cost savings to reach 50%. Getting an access to high-quality services at cost-effective price is the biggest benefit that you can get while outsourcing. In a company, full time employee requires a number of expenses that are not necessary for outsourced employees, i.e. Full time employees are been paid, even if there is nothing for them to do. In this situation, outsourcing helps the company to pay for the time that is spent completing the job and helps in completing the given project or given work at the right time.
… Read the rest
Majority of retailers use a form that summarizes the basic budgetary information for a given merchandise grouping during a specified period normally for a period of six months. The retailer must select the control unit for which projections will be made, before making sales estimates. The “control unit” is the merchandising grouping that serves as the basic reporting unit for various types of information namely, past, present and future. The retailer has the choice to estimate future sales for an entire store, for a merchandise division or department, or for an individual product-line or item. The most three acceptable control units can be merchandise groups, merchandise classes and merchandise categories of all these three, experts recommend merchandise categories as the basic control unit as it is generally much easier to aggregate the information than it is to disaggregate information, i.e., breaking down merchandise groups into classes and categories. This attempt increases the accuracy in estimating future sales and to get greater degree of control throughout the entire budgetary process. Sales planning involves two types of estimates namely annual and monthly.
1. Annual Sales Estimates
A thorough examination of retailer’s past sales records is the alpha point for making sales forecasts for each merchandise category-better known as control unit. By plotting the actual sales forecasts for each control unit over the last few years, the retailer can identify part sales patterns and gain some insight into possible future sales trends. This approach to sales estimates is generally referred to as time series forecasting .… Read the rest
Businesses that succeed do so by creating and keeping customers. They do this by providing better value for the customer than the competition. Marketing management constantly have to assess which customers they are trying to reach and how they can design products and services that provide better value (“competitive advantage”). The main problem with this process is that the “environment” in which businesses operate is constantly changing. So a business must adapt to reflect changes in the environment and make decisions about how to change the marketing mix in order to succeed. This process of adapting and decision making is known as marketing planning.
So, marketing planning is a plan involves designing activities relating to marketing objectives and attach with the capability of changing marketing environment. It contains with the issues of product lines, distribution channels, marketing communications and pricing.
Marketing planning process is a fundamental part of Marketing Audit. It is conducted not only at the beginning of the process but also during and after the process completion. Marketing audit not only consider its own plan but also considers internal and external factor that affects marketing planning. Some important tools used by marketing audit are SWOT for internal and external environment where as PEST and Five Forces Analysis which focus only on the external environment.
Where does marketing planning fit in with the overall strategic planning of a business?
Strategic planning which you will cover in your studies of “strategy” is concerned about the overall direction of the business. It is concerned with marketing, of course.… Read the rest