To ensure growth and development of any organization, the efficiency of people must be augmented in the right perspective. Without human resources, the other resources cannot be operationally effective. The success or otherwise of an organization depends on how best the scarce physical resources are utilized by the human resource. What is important here is that the physical resources are being activated by the human resources as the physical resources cannot act on their own. Therefore, the efficient and effective utilization of inanimate resources depends largely on the quality, caliber, skills, perception and character of the people, that is, the human resources working in it. The term Human resource at macro level indicates the sum of all the components such as skills, creative abilities, innovative thinking, intuition, imagination, knowledge and experience possessed by all the people.
“Human Resource Accounting” is the offshoot of various research studies conducted in the areas of accounting and finance. Human resource is an asset whose value gets appreciated over the period of time provided placed, applied and developed in the right direction. The traditional concept suggested that expenditure on human resource is treated as a charge against revenue as it does not create any physical asset. At present there is a change in this concept and the expenses incurred on any asset (as human resources) should be treated as capital expenditure as it yields benefits which can be derived for a long period of time and could be measured in monetary terms.
The people are the most important assets of an organization but the value of this asset yet to appear in financial statements. It does not get included in management information systems too. Conventional accounting of human resources took note of all expenses of Human capital formation which does not seem to be correct or meeting the actual needs. Human Resource Accounting is the measurement of the cost and value of people to the organization. It involves measuring costs incurred by the organizations to recruit, select, hire, train and develop employees and judge their economic value to the organization.
Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Accounting
The American Accounting Society Committee on Human Resource Accounting defines it as follows: “Human Resource Accounting is the process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties.” In simple terms, it is an extension of the accounting principles of matching costs and revenues and of organizing data to communicate relevant information in financial terms.
Thus, human resources accounting may be defined as, “a process of accounting which identifies, quantifies and measures human resources for the use of management to cope up with the changes in its quantum and quality so that equilibrium could be achieved in between the required resources and the provided human resources”.
In short, human resource accounting is the art of valuing, recording and presenting systematically the worth of human resources in the books of account of an organization. This definition brings out the following important characteristic features of human resource accounting:
- Valuation of human resources
- Recording the valuation in the books of account
- Disclosure of the information in the financial statements of the business.
Importance of Human Resource Accounting
Human Resource Accounting provides useful information to the management, financial analysts and employees as stated below:
- Human Resource Accounting helps the management in the employment, locating and utilization of human resources.
- It helps in deciding the transfers, promotion, training and retrenchment of human resources.
- It provides a basis for planning of physical assets vis-à-vis human resources.
- It assists in evaluating the expenditure incurred for imparting further education and training in employees in terms of the benefits derived by the firm.
- It helps to identify the causes of high labor turnover at various levels and taking preventive measures to contain it.
- It helps in locating the real cause for low return on investment, like improper or under-utilization of physical assets or human resource or both.
- It helps in understanding and assessing the inner strength of an organization and helps the management to steer the company well through most adverse and unfavorable circumstances.
- It provides valuable information for persons interested in making long term investment in the firm.
- It helps employees in improving their performance and bargaining power. It makes each of them to understand his contribution towards the betterment of the firm vis-à-vis the expenditure incurred by the firm on him.