The trading system on the NCDEX provides a fully automated screen based trading for futures on commodities on a nationwide basis as well as online monitoring and surveillance mechanism. It supports an order driven market and provides complete transparency of trading operations. Order matching is essential on the basis of commodity, its price, time and quantity. All quantity fields are in units and price in rupees. The exchange specifies the unit of trading and the delivery unit for futures contracts on various commodities. The exchange notifies the regular lot size and tick size for each of the contracts traded from time to time. When any order enters the trading system, it is an active order. It tries to finds a match on the other side of the book. If it finds a match, a trade is generated. If it does not find a match, the order becomes passive and gets queued in the respective outstanding order book in the system. Time stamping is done for each trade and provides the possibility for a complete audit trail if required. NCDEX trades commodity futures contracts having one month, two month and three month expiry cycles.
All contracts expire on the 20th of the expiry month. Thus a January expiration contract would expire on the 20th of January and a February expiry contract would cease trading on the 20th of February. If the 20th of the expiry month is a trading holiday, the contracts shall expire on the previous trading day. New contracts will be introduced on the trading day following the expiry of the near month contract.
National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited (NSCCL) undertakes clearing of trades executed on the NCDEX. The settlement guarantee fund is maintained and managed by NCDEX. Only clearing members including professional clearing members (PCMs) only are entitled to clear and settle contracts through the clearing house. At NCDEX, after the trading hours on the expiry date, based on the available information, the matching for deliveries takes place firstly, on the basis of locations and then randomly, keeping in view the factors such as available capacity of the vault/warehouse, commodities already deposited and dematerialized and offered for delivery etc. Matching done by this process is binding on the clearing members. After completion of the matching process, clearing members are informed of the deliverable/ receivable positions and the unmatched positions. Unmatched positions have to be settled in cash.
The cash settlement is only for the incremental gain/loss as determined on the basis of final settlement price.
Futures contracts have two types of settlements, the MTM settlement which happens on a continuous basis at the end of each day, and the final settlement which happens on the last trading day of the futures contract. On the NCDEX, daily MTM settlement and the final MTM settlement in respect of admitted deals in futures contracts are cash settled by debiting/crediting the clearing accounts of CMs with the respective clearing bank. All positions of a CM, brought forward, created during the day or closed out during the day, are market to market at the daily settlement price or the final settlement price at the close of trading hours on a day.
On the date of expiry, the final settlement price is the spot price on the expiry day. The responsibility of settlement is on a trading cum clearing member for all trades done on his own account and his client’s trades. A professional clearing member is responsible for settling all the participants’ trades, which he has confirmed to the exchange. On the expiry date of a futures contract, members submit delivery information through delivery request window on the trader workstations provided by NCDEX for all open positions for a commodity for all constituents individually. NCDEX on receipt of such information matches the information and arrives at delivery position for a member for a commodity. The seller intending to make delivery takes the commodities to the designated warehouse.
These commodities have to be assayed by the exchange specified assayer. The commodities have to meet the contract specifications with allowed variances. If the commodities meet the specifications, the warehouse accepts them. Warehouse then ensures that the receipts get updated in the depository system giving a credit in the depositor’s electronic account. The seller the gives the invoice to his clearing member, who would courier the same to the buyer’s clearing member. On an appointed date, the buyer goes to the warehouse and takes physical possession of the commodities.