Motivation can be defined as stimulating, inspiring and inducing the employees to perform to their best capacity. Motivation is a psychological term which means it cannot be forced on employees. It comes automatically from inside the employees as it is the willingness to do the work.
Process of Motivation
- Unsatisfied need. Motivation process begins when there is an unsatisfied need in a human being.
- Tension. The presence of unsatisfied need gives him tension.
- Drive. This tension creates an urge of drive in the human being an he starts looking for various alternatives to satisfy the drive.
- Search Behavior. After searching for alternatives the human being starts behaving according to chosen option.
- Satisfied need. After behaving in a particular manner for a long time then he evaluates that whether the need is satisfied or not.
- Reduction of tension. After fulfilling the need the human being gets satisfied and his tension gets reduced.
For example, if an employee develops a need to earn more, this need will make him restless and he will start thinking how to satisfy his need. To satisfy his need he may think of working hard in organization and get promotion so he will start working hard. After sometime he will get incentives or increments or promotion which will satisfy his need.
But motivation process does not end by satisfaction of one need. After fulfilling one need another need develops and the same process continues till needs keep emerging in human beings.
Features of motivation
- Motivation is a psychological phenomenon. Motivation is an internal feeling which means it cannot be forced on employees. The internal feelings such as need, desire, aspirations etc. influence human behavior to behave in a particular manner. For example, desire to have a new house, respect and recognition etc.
- Motivation produces goal directed behavior. Motivation induces people to behave in such a manner so that they can achieve their goal. Motivated person need no supervision or direction. He will always work in desired manner. For example of a person has a motive to get promotion so he will work efficiently to get promotion.
- Motivators can be positive as well as negative. To motivate employees managers use various motivators. Some motivators are positive and some are negative few examples of positive motivators are promotion, increment, bonus, respect, recognition etc. if employee does not improve his performance with positive motivators then manager uses negative motivators such as warning, issue o memo, demotion, stopping increments etc. sometimes fear of negative motivators also induces person to behave in a desired manner.
- Motivation is a complex process. Motivation is a complex and difficult task. In order to motivate people a manager must understand various types of human need. Human needs are mental feelings which can be measured accurately. If manager measures them accurately then also every person uses different approaches to satisfy his need. Some get satisfied with monetary incentives, some with non-monetary, some with positive and some with negative motivators. So it is not possible to make generalization in motivation.
- Motivation is a dynamic and continuous process. Human beings are ever-changing. Human needs are unlimited and go on changing continuously. Satisfaction of one need gives rise to another so managers have to continuously perform the function of motivation.
Importance of Motivation
- Motivation helps change negative attitude to positive attached. Without motivation the employees try to perform minimum activities in the organization. But the motivation fills in the desire to perform to their maximum level. All the resources of the organization are of no use unless and until the employees use these resources. The motivated employees make best use of the resources.
- Motivation improves performance level of employees. The motivation improves the efficiency level of employees which means the employees start performing the job to the best of their ability with minimum wastage of time and resources because motivated employees always go for best utilization of resources. The motivation bridges the gap between the ability to work and willingness always improves efficiency.
- Help in achieving the Organizational Goal. The motivated employees always try to achieve the organizational goal and contribute their best efforts for the realization of organizational goal as they know with the achievement of organizational goal only they can achieve their personal goal. All the employees contribute their efforts in one direction of accomplishment of goal.
- Motivation creates supportive work environment. In motivation the relations between superior and subordinates are always improved. When the employees get their need satisfied or get the recognition and respect in the organization then they always offer a supportive hand to superiors. There is more co-operation and co-ordination in the organization and all the employees work with the team spirit.
- Motivation helps the managers to introduce changes. The motivated employees show less resistance in accepting the changes according to changes in the business environment because they know if the changes are not implements in the organization, not only the organization will lose by this but the employees also will find it difficult to get their needs fulfilled. Motivated employees are always supportive and co-operative in accepting changes in the organization.
- Reduction in Employee Turnover. The motivation creates confidence in the employees to get their need satisfied in the organization itself. They always select the alternative to remain in the organization and increase their earning rather than leaving the organization and increasing their earnings. With motivation employee turnovers are less because the satisfied employees never leave the job.
Credit: Principles of Management-MGU