Meaning of Dispatching
Dispatch function executes planning function. It is concerned with getting the work started. Dispatching ensures that the plans are properly implemented. Dispatching is the physical handing over of a manufacturing order to the operating facility (a worker) through the release of orders and instructions in accordance with a previously developed plan of activity (time and sequence) established by the scheduling section of the production planning and control department. Dispatcher transmits orders to the various shops. Dispatch function determines, by whom the job shall be done and it co-ordinates production. It is the key point of a production communications system. It creates a direct link between production and sales.
A dispatcher is familiar with the productive capacity of each equipment. He always keeps an eye over the progress of orders which move at different speeds on different routes.
The product is broken into different components and components into operations.
- Store Issue Order: Authorize stores (department) to deliver required raw material.
- Tool Order: Authorize tool store to release the necessary tools. The tools can be collected by the tool room attendant.
- Job Order: Instruct the worker to proceed with the operation.
- Time Ticket. : It records the beginning and ending time of the operations and forms the basis for worker’s pay.
- Inspection Order: Notify the inspectors to carried out necessarily inspections and report the quality of the component.
- Move Order: Authorize the movement of materials and components from one facility (machine) to another for further operations.
In addition, there are certain other dispatch aspects which have to be taken care of:
- All production information should be available before hand.
- Various order cards, and specification drawings should be ready.
- Equipments should be ready for use.
- Progress of various orders should be properly recorded on the Gantt charts or display boards.
- All production records should be properly maintained.
Centralized And Decentralized Dispatching
Dispatch function may be centralized or decentralized.
In a Centralized dispatch system, a central dispatching department, orders directly to the work station. It maintains a full record of the characteristics and capacity of each equipment and work lad against each machine. The orders are given to the shop supervisor, who runs his machines accordingly. In most of the cases, the supervisor can also give suggestions as regards loading of men and machines under him. A centralized dispatching system has the following advantages:
- A greater degree of overall control can be achieved.
- Effective co-ordination between different facilities is possible.
- It has greater flexibility
- Because of urgency of orders, changes in schedules can be affected rapidly without upsetting the whole system.
- Progress of orders can be readily assessed at any time because all the information is available at a central place.
- There is effective and better utilization of manpower and machinery.
In a Decentralized dispatching system the shop supervisor performs the dispatch factions. He decides the sequence of handling different orders. He dispatches the orders and materials to each equipment and worker, and is required to complete the work within the prescribed duration. In case he suspects delay, with due reasons of the same, he informs the production control department. A decentralized dispatching system has the following advantages.
- Much of the red tape is minimized
- Shop supervisor knows best about his shop, therefore, the work can be accomplished by the most appropriate worker and the machine.
- Elaborate reports and duplication of postings can be avoided
- Communication gap is reduced
- It is easy to solve day-to-day problems
- It keeps the natural urge of a section to be self-sufficient.
The advantages of a centralized system, more or less give an idea about the disadvantages of the decentralized system and vice versa.
Credit: Operations Management-MGU