The efficiency of material handling could be judged by the following principles:
1. “Equipment built for motion should be kept in motion; idle Equipment should be kept inexpensive”.
2.”Continuous material movement is most economical”
This principle states that materials handling efficiency is Greatest when it approaches a steady flow of materials, in as straight as possible, with minimum interpretations and minimum backtracking and where movements approach continues rather than intermittent flow. It is not; always possible, in practice, to completely achieve the objective of this rule. However, it is the target towards which we Aim our thinking. Conveyors systems, both overhead and floor types, are excellent examples of the application of this idea.
3. “Materials’ handling economy is generally directly proportional to the size of load handled”
We all recognize, however, that as the load size increases There is a point reached beyond which it becomes more costly, and less Practical. From this, it is also logical to conclude another important axiom: “there is a definite ideal load size in a given material handling operation “.
4. “Storage space is best measured in terms of cubic content”
The “space saving” rule states that equipment should be Selected so as to allow utilization of cubical space for temporary and Permanent storage.
5. “Material Handling Operations are only as good as the physical layout of the plant will permit”
Good layout of machinery, fixed equipment and aisle areas are fundamental to good product handling. Where you are erecting a new building, you have unlimited opportunities to layout the various areas allowing proper aisle widths, sufficient storage areas, and erect your Plant with material movement in mind.
6.”Standardization of methods, types of equipment and sizes of Equipment is desirable for good material handling efficiency”
The most efficient system is generally that which is Simplest. It is not hard to understand why standardization is important, because it permits interchangeability of equipment between Department and plants; it allows stocking of fewer replacement parts; It simplifies employee training in the equipment. In addition, it-enables management to shift equipment from department to department Depending on the production load changes. Another aspect of standardization for the sake of economy in that of choosing equipment That is considered “standard” by the material handling equipment Manufacturer.
Standardization does not require that only one size container, for example, is permissible; rather it implies the fewest number possible. In some instances it would be impossible to standardize on one size container especially where a large number of Different parts are handled. Repeat in standardization does not mean one it means the fewest number.
7. “The value of equipment is directly proportional to its Flexibility”
The greater the variety of uses and applications to which a Piece of equipment can be put, the greater is its flexibility, and the More valuable it becomes from a material handling standpoint. Flexibility in equipment offers the distinct advantage that It is readily adaptable to any unforeseeable changes that comes up from Time to time. in any progressive organization methods and equipment and Constantly in the state of change and improvement. Flexible machinery Takes these changes in stride, and does not have to be scuttled before its completed.
8. ” The use of mechanized equipment instead of manpower generally increases efficiency and economy in handling.”
By the use of mechanized equipment instead of manpower, Efficiency and economy in material handling is obtained. Mechanized equipment must, of course, be able to justify Itself on a rupee- and- basis, like any investment management may Make. Some of the advantage of mechanized equipment is as follows, to both management and labor;
- Over all safety is increased
- Workers are less fatigue at the end of the day
- Work done by power is generally cheaper
- Larger volume of work handled per operator is accomplished
- Greater speed of handling is obtained, resulting in less Idle time for skilled workers, better production control, a larger volume of goods manufactured and displaced workers put on other jobs in the plant.
9. “Productivity increases as working conditions become safer”.
Unless mechanized equipment makes s given handling job safer for the plant personnel, it will costlier in the last analysis. In material handing there is an old axiom, “if it is safe, it is not worth it “
10. ” The ratio of dead weight to payload must be kept minimum.”
Mechanical handling equipment which is unencumbered by excessively unnecessary dead weight can perform at top efficiency. For example, an aluminum conveyor is now being substituted in many instances for heavier metal (steel) conveyors where operations require moving the handling conveyor. Another good example is the reduction in weight of highway trailers and unit load containers, pallets and skids to eliminate the necessity for hauling excess weight.