Referencing a Research Report

References must be explicitly given in the research report. Bibliography is one type of referencing a research report and this has been already dealt. Other type of referencing is the foot notes.

Referencing using footnotes

Referencing using Footnotes

Footnotes are meant to give complete bibliographical references and to provide the reader with information to enable him consult sources independently. These may be placed at the foot of a page or at the end of every chapter. When footnotes are given at the foot of the page, they are to be separated from the text by a fifteen space solid line drawn from the left margin and one double space below the last line of the text. If given at the end of a chapter, a centered heading ‘FOOTNOTES’ is necessary. Reference to footnotes is made by the use of superscripts i.e., numerals raised by one-half space. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively through a chapter, right after the statement. However, footnotes should not be resorted to common place statements or ordinary facts. They must be restricted to direct quotations, original ideas, statements, definitions, illustrations and diagrams. If a quotation found in one source that is obtained from another source, is used, both the sources should be listed in the footnote. Footnotes should be given in single line spacing with the first line only indented. A double space -should separate, successive footnotes.

In this context, certain conventions in footnoting should be kept in mind. While writing the author’s name, the first name or initials should be written first. Titles of completed works, such as books and reports should be underlined. Titles of articles should be enclosed by double quotation marks. The publisher’s name, year or date of publication and the exact page(s) of the source of reference should also be given in this order.

Citation and Referencing Abbreviations

The meaning of accepted abbreviations meant to avoid repetitive arid lengthy documentation should be clearly understood, and should be used appropriately. Often employed abbreviations while footnoting include:  ibid, loc.cit, op.cit., infra, supra, vide, cf., and passim.

  • ‘Ibid’ is the abbreviation of the word ‘ibidem’ which means, in the same place or work. This is to be used when two or more successive footnotes refer to the same source. However, if reference is to different pages, page numbers are to be indicated. When reference is made to the same place, that is the same page, as a preceding but not immediately preceding reference.
  • ‘loc.cit’ is used following the last name of the author only. The abbreviation loc.cit. is derived from “loco citato” which means in the place cited.
  • The abbreviated form of “opera citato”, viz. ‘op.cit’ should follow the author’s name and precede the page reference of the same work as a preceding but not immediately preceding reference.
  • To refer to the work already cited “supra” should follow the author’s name and precede the page reference. ‘Supra’ means, ‘above’.
  • To refer to the text following ‘infra’ is to be used.
  • To refer to the appendices or other annexure, the abbreviation ‘Vide’ which means ‘see’ is to be used.
  • To invite the reader to compare what is stated with something else, the abbreviation “cf”. is to be used.
  • When reference is to be made to opinions, attitudes etc., on a number of pages ‘passim’,which means ‘here and there’ is to be used.

The meaning of the above usages would be clear only if a reference is made to a standard publication.

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