A production line is typically associated with continuous or flow production system. Production lines are particularly appropriate for high volume operations. In a production line work is divided into individual tasks and assigned to consecutive workstations on the line. In mass production on progressive assembly line the workload between various machines or workstations should be balanced. The need for balancing the line becomes obvious when it is considered that the output to be received from the line is determined by the maximum time involved in the performance of work at one particular workstation. The imbalances existing in the line would lead to wastage of time at all other work stations when one work station holds up the total output rate. Therefore, it is necessary to level out or balance the cycle times at each workstation.
Line balancing refers to the apportionment of sequential work activities into workstations in order to achieve maximum possible utilization of facilities and to minimize idle time. In case of wholly automated operations, line balancing is largely achieved through engineering design.…
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It is now an accepted fact that in today’s fiercely competitive world, individual efforts, however brilliant, cannot be a substitute for teamwork. Modern organizations have to heavily depend on various types of teams to be effective and efficient. Japan is a pioneer in this team concept and has shown the world how an innovative concept like “Quality Circles” draws involvement of employees at all levels in solving work related problems and achieve continuous improvement in every area of work. Japanese organizations give a very large credit to this concept for their undisputed world leadership in quality and productivity.
What is “Quality Circle”?
Quality Circle is a voluntary association of a group of persons working in same or similar type of job at the same work area who meet regularly one hour a week during their normal working time o discuss about their work related problems and arrive at a solution which can be implemented by them without additional cost or at a marginal cost. This group will ideally consists of 8 to 10 members but it should never be less than 5 or more than 15 in number because with less number of sufficient ideas may not come up and more number in depth discussion will not be possible. There is a strict discipline in both formation and working of the group.…
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Meaning of Dispatching
Dispatch function executes planning function. It is concerned with getting the work started. Dispatching ensures that the plans are properly implemented. Dispatching is the physical handing over of a manufacturing order to the operating facility (a worker) through the release of orders and instructions in accordance with a previously developed plan of activity (time and sequence) established by the scheduling section of the production planning and control department. Dispatcher transmits orders to the various shops. Dispatch function determines, by whom the job shall be done and it co-ordinates production. It is the key point of a production communications system. It creates a direct link between production and sales.
A dispatcher is familiar with the productive capacity of each equipment. He always keeps an eye over the progress of orders which move at different speeds on different routes.
The product is broken into different components and components into operations.
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- Store Issue Order: Authorize stores (department) to deliver required raw material.
Meaning of Tool Control
Tool control implies (1) determining tool requirements (2) procuring necessary tools and (3) controlling/maintaining tools once they have been procured. A tool or process planner must calculate tool requirements prior to the time of production to ensure that proper tools will be available when needed. Lost time resulting from incomplete tools planning can be expensive as well as causing work to delay. In order to facilitate tool control and to limit the investment in tool inventory, it is important to standardize wherever possible all the tools within an organisation.
Need for Tool Control
It is very important to ensure:
- Against loss through theft or negligence and production delays through misplacement or non-availability of tools.
- That the investment in tool inventories is minimized consistent with proper tool availability.
Tool Control Procedure
Two methods are commonly used to control the issue and receipt of tools to and from the workers.
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- The Brass Ring System. Brass rings with worker’s identification number marked on them are issued to every worker when he draws a tool from the crib, he gives one of his, rings to the attendant and the ring is hung on a peg at the tool bin.
Meaning of Routing
Routing lays down the flow of work in the plant. It determines what work is to be done and where and how it will be done. Taking from raw material to the finished product, routing decides the path and sequence of operations to be performed on the job from one machine to another. The purpose of Routing is to establish the optimum sequence of operations. Routing is related to considerations of layout, temporary storage of in-process inventory and material handling.
Routing in continuous industries does not present any problem because of the product type of layout, where the equipment is laid as per the sequence of operations required to be performed on the components (from raw material to the finished products). In open job shops, since, every time the job is new, though operation sheets (sometimes) may serve the purpose, but the route sheets will have to be revise and this involves a greater amount of work and expertise.…
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Method Study is a technique which analyses each operation of a given piece of work very closely in order to eliminate unnecessary operations and to approach the quickest and easiest method of performing each necessary operation; it includes the standardization of equipment, method and working conditions; and training of the operator to follow the standard method.
Method Study may also be defined as the systematic investigation of the existing method of doing a job in order to develop and install an easy, rapid, efficient and effective and less fatiguing procedure for doing the same and at lower costs. This is generally achieved by eliminating unnecessary motions involved in a certain procedure or by changing the sequence of operations or the process itself.
Frank Gilbreth defines method study as “the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from ill-directed and inefficient motions”. The main purpose is to find the scheme of least wastage of human resource. The modern concept of method study is a development of Gilbreth’s Technique of Motion Study.…
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