Internationalization Concept -The Uppsala Internationalization Model

Internationalization consists of standardized products or service through globally standardized marketing and production processes that target standardized customer needs. Internationalization can be described as the process of increasing involvement in international operations. Another definition denotes internationalization as the process of adapting firms’ operations (strategy, structure, resources, etc) to international environments. Both definitions emphasize the crucial fact that internationalization needs an overall support from the organisation as it is changing the environment to expand in various manners the process mostly consists of macro factors to evolve.

The Process of Internationalization

Internationalization fundamentally alters the price-setting strategies of domestic economic agents. This is true for agents operating in product markets, factor markets and financial markets.… Read the rest

Global Supply Chain Management – Drivers and Activities of Global Supply Chain

Nowadays with globalization, global supply chain management is becoming a very important issue for most of businesses. The main reasons of this trend are procurement cost reduction, purchasing risks control, revenues increasing and etc. For instance, companies may set up overseas factories to benefit from tariff and trade concessions, lower labor cost, capital subsidies, and reduced logistics costs in foreign markets. Moreover, easy access to abroad markets and close proximity to customers result better organizational learning. On the other hand, improved reliability can be obtained as a consequence of closer relationship with suppliers.

There are some issues that should be considered in managing a global supply chain.… Read the rest

Social Entrepreneurship in India

Social entrepreneurship as the concept was coined long ago but has been in the corporate parlance in just the recent past. Traditionally, entrepreneurship has been associated with profit making individuals who aim high and achieve a lot for themselves in the world of tough competition. And the success of enterprise was and is being judged on parameter like return on investment and net income margins. But, with the empowerment and awareness of the citizens of the developing world, a new revolution has started, particularly among the youth of the world. This revolution is the growth of Social Entrepreneurship – the form of entrepreneurship where profits are not the end result, but just the means to achieve the end result of social upliftment and further empowerment.… Read the rest

External Environment Factors Causing Uncertainty in Organizations

Businesses are bound to encounter several forces whenever they are in operation. In some cases, these forces are over and above their control. In spite of this reality, there is no single business which can exist without going through the external environmental forces. It is therefore imperative for a business establishment to put into consideration all the possible external forces which may affect its operations either positively or negatively. In this regard, opportunities and threats are worth noting because they account for the external factors which would often affect a business environment. When the external factors are considered and concurrently compared with the internal factors, it will be possible for a business management to formulate the right policies of dealing with the inevitable external forces.… Read the rest

Global Compensation Practices

For many companies, maintaining a domestic compensation program  that supports the strategic goals of the organization and meets the needs of  employees is a difficult challenge. This challenge is intensified when a similar  program must be designed to operate in multiple countries with different  cultures. For organizations competing in a global marketplace, managing compensation requires a through understanding of the taxation of compensation  and benefits, differing state social systems, differences in living standards and  employee values and expectations.

Some of the most challenging questions in  compensation practices are following:

  1. How does a company pay expatriates from difference home countries  brought together to work on a project?
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Syndicated Euro Credits

History of  Syndicated  Euro Credits

Syndicated Euro Credits are in existence  since the late 1960s. The first syndicate was  organized by Bankers Trust in an effort to  arrange a large credit for Austria. During  the early seventies, Euromarkets saw the  demand for Euro credits increasing from  non-traditional and hitherto untested  borrowers. The period after first oil crisis  was marked by a boom phase. To cope with  the increasing demand for funds, lenders  expanded their business without  undertaking due credit appraisal of their  clients or the countries thus financed.  Further, the European banks had short-term  deposits while bulk of borrowers required  long-term deposits.… Read the rest