Syndicated Euro Credits

History of Syndicated Euro Credits Syndicated Euro Credits are in existence since the late 1960s. The first syndicate was organized by Bankers Trust in an effort to arrange a large credit for Austria. During the early seventies, Euromarkets saw the demand for Euro credits increasing from non-traditional and hitherto untested borrowers. The period after first oil crisis was marked by a boom phase. To cope with the increasing demand for funds, lenders expanded their business without undertaking due credit appraisal of their clients or the countries thus financed. Further, the European banks had short-term deposits while bulk of borrowers required long-term deposits. These landings were at fixed rates thus exposing these banks to interest rate risks. The banks evolved the concept of lending funds for medium longterm i.e. 7-15 years on a variable interest rate basis linked to the Interbank Rate (LIBOR). Revision of rates would take place every 3-6Continue reading

Emerging Trends in International Capital Markets

Three interrelated developments in global capital markets are: The sustained rise in gross capital flows relative to net flows; The increasing importance of securitized forms of capital flows; and The growing concentration of financial institutions and financial markets. Taken together these trends may signal what some others have referred to as a ‘quiet opening’ of the capital account of the balance of payments, which is resulting in the development, strengthening and growing integration of domestic financial systems within the international financial system. Finance is being rationalized across national borders, resulting in a breakdown in many countries in the distinction between onshore and offshore finance. It is particularly evident and most advanced in the wholesale side of the financial industry, and is becoming increasingly apparent in the retail side as well. Taken together these three effects have contributed to a sharp rise in volatility — in both capital flows and assetContinue reading

Fama and French Three Factor Model

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is the backbone of modern portfolio theory. According to CAPM, the expected return on stock is a function of its relationship with the market portfolio defined by its beta. However, Eugene Fama and Kenneth French (1992) brought together two more factors and found that stock return is based on a combination of not just market beta but also firm size and value. They came up with a new model known as Three Factor Model as an alternative to CAPM. What is Fama and French Three Factor Model? Fama and French three factor model expands on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) by adding size and value factors in addition to the market risk factor in CAPM. This model considers the fact that value and small cap stocks out-perform markets on a regular basis. Fama and French attempted to approach and measure equity returns in aContinue reading

Role of Credit Default Swaps in Subprime Crisis

Background of Subprime Crisis The immediate cause or trigger of the crisis was the bursting of the United States housing bubble which peaked in approximately 2005-2006. High default rates on “subprime” and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM) began to increase quickly thereafter. An increase in loan incentives such as easy initial terms and a long-term trend of rising housing prices had encouraged borrowers to assume difficult mortgages in the belief they would be able to quickly refinance at more favorable terms. However, once interest rates began to rise and housing prices started to drop moderately in 2006-2007 in many parts of the U.S., refinancing became more difficult. Defaults and foreclosure activity increased dramatically as easy initial terms expired, home prices failed to go up as anticipated, and ARM interest rates reset higher. Foreclosures accelerated in the United States in late 2006 and triggered a global financial crisis through 2007 and 2008.Continue reading

Understanding the Financial Swaps Market

Exchange rate instability and the collapse of the Bretton Woods System and particularly the control over the movement of the capital internationally, paved the way for the origin of the financial swaps market. To day swaps are at the center of the global financial revolution. The growth is such that sometimes it looks like unbelievable but it is true. Though its growth will continue or not is doubtful. Already the shaking has started. In the “plain vanilla” dollar sector, the profits for brokers and market makers, after costs and allocation of risk capital, are measured in fewer than five basis points. This is before the regulators catch up and force disclosure and capital haircuts. At these spreads, the more highly paid must move on to currency swaps, tax-driven deals, tailored structures and schlock swaps. The fact which is certain is that, although the excitement may diminish, swaps will stay. Already,Continue reading

Positive and Negative Effects of Debt

Debt can be viewed as good and sometimes also can bad too. Debt makes people and organizations that they would not allowed to do. All this while, people use it to purchase houses, cars, and others things with their cash on hand. With the debt, they can spend as much as they want on expensive things. Besides, for those companies also use the debt as to influence the investment made in their assets. This influence of debt is considered as an important part in determining the riskiness of the investment. As we know that, the more the debt per equity, the more risky we will face. The increased of risks will bring some bad effects to organizations as well as individuals. As for individuals, the cost of servicing the debt can grow beyond the ability to pay due to both external events and this cause their income loss. And thereContinue reading