Dynamic Provisioning in Indian Banking

Dynamic Provisioning: The Basel II Framework is approaching dynamic provisioning by clearly requiring banks to separately measure EL(Expected Loss) and UL(Unexpected Loss). EL-based provisioning has forward-looking element as it is capable of incorporating through the cycle view of probability of default. The recent financial crisis has provided a still further fillip to the search for a forward-looking provisioning approach due to pro-cyclical considerations. Inadequacy of the Current Provisioning Policy in India: In normal provisioning policies, specific provisions are made ex-post based on some estimation of the level of impairment. The general provisions are normally made ex-ante as determined by regulatory authorities or bank management based on their subjective judgment. While such a policy for making specific provisions is pro-cyclical, that for general provisions does not lay down objective rules for utilization thereof. Indian banks make the following types of loan loss provisions at present: General provisions for standard assets, SpecificContinue reading

Microfinance Through Self Help Groups (SHG)

Microfinance In India, the Task Force on Supportive Policy and Regulatory Framework for Microfinance has defined MF (Microfinance) as the “Provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products of very small amounts to the poor in rural, semi-urban or urban areas for enabling them to raise their income levels and improve living standards”. Major characteristics of Microfinance are: Small amounts of saving and credit Collateral free credit through collateral substitute like peer pressure Group formation to create peer pressure and bring discipline Easy access Less and simplified procedures and documentations Credit for both investment and consumption needs Poor are bankable Affordable interest rates Sustainability There are different methodologies for delivering microfinance like Grameen bank model of Prof. Yunus, SHG-Bank linkage model, Micro finance institutions (for profit and non profit),NBFC model, NGO model etc. In India SHG-Bank linkage model is the most popular model. Self Help Groups (SHG) ModelContinue reading

Securitization in India – SARFAESI Act, 2002

The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 or SARFAESI Act, 2002 allows banks and financial institutions to auction properties (residential and commercial) when borrowers fail to repay their loans. The Act aims at speedy recovery of defaulting loans and to reduce the mounting levels of Non-performing Assets of banks and financial institutions. As stated in the Act, it has “enabled banks and FIs to realise long-term assets, manage problems of liquidity, asset-liability mismatches and improve recovery by taking possession of securities, sell them and reduce non performing assets (NPAs) by adopting measures for recovery or reconstruction.” The SARFAESI Act, 2002 has been largely perceived as facilitating asset recovery and reconstruction. The Act has been passed based on the recommendations of Narasimham Committee I and II and Andhyarujina Committee constituted by the Central Government for the purpose of examining banking sector reforms and toContinue reading

Importance of Capital Controls in Economic Policy

Globalization of capital investment and finance has surfaced for a long period of time in the world of global financial market. Capital flow liberalization has brought up the importance of capital controls for some countries to achieve their economic growth. The Description of Capital Controls Since the failure of Bretton Woods system in 1971, the international capital movements within developed and developing countries become unstable and for some countries the capital flows need to be controlled. Capital controls are restrictions to regulate the movement of capitals which are flowing in or out of the country. Capital flows may be in forms of bank loans, portfolio investment and foreign direct investment. The controls of short terms portfolio investment and bank loans are quite necessary since they are quite risky because of the roll-over risks. For long term credits and FDI are less risky if they are politically guaranteed. Looking back toContinue reading

Gilt-Edged (Government) Securities Market

Government securities refer to the marketable debt issued by the government of semi-government bodies. A government security is a claim on the government. It is a totally securer financial instrument ensuring safety of both capital and income. That is why it is called gilt-edged security or stock. Central Government securities are the safest among all securities. Government securities are issues by: Central Government State Government Semi-Government authorities like local government authorities, e.g., city corporations and municipalities Autonomous institutions, such as metropolitan authorities, port trusts, development trusts, state electricity boards. Public Sector Corporations Other governmental agencies, such as SFCs, NABARD, LDBs, SIDCs, housing boards etc. Characteristics of Gilt-edged Securities Market Gilt-edged securities market is one of the oldest market in India. The market in these securities is a significant part of Indian stock market. Main characteristics of government securities market are as follows: Supply of government securities in the market arisesContinue reading

Role of NBFCs in the Indian Financial Sector

The financial institutions are usually classified as banking institutions and non-banking financial institutions (NBFCs). The banks subject to legal reserve requirements can advance credit by creating claims against themselves, while the non-banking financial institutions can lend only out of resources put at their disposal by the ultimate savers. The distinction between the two has been highlighted by savers while characterizing the former as “creators” of credit, and the letter as mere “purveyors” of credit. NBFCs and Monetary Policy The proliferation of NBFCs in India has coincided with a major structural transformation in the Indian financial system, which has an important bearing on the conduct of monetary policy. NBFCs started functioning in the sphere of mobilization of dormant assets and tapping of new users of credit. In the process, they channelized savings in the economy by collecting funds from savings surplus units and allocating them to savings deficit units for investmentContinue reading