Pluralist Perspective of Industrial Relations

The Pluralist perspective of industrial relations is just as the name suggests, they see organisations as constellations of different groups. The organisation is seen as multi-structured in terms of groups, leadership, authority and loyalty. A miniature democratic state composed of sectional groups with divergent interests over which the government tries to maintain some kind of dynamic equilibrium. The main groups within this perspective that find themselves at the opposite ends of the scales often are the workers and managers. This can be down to a number of issues such as pay, working conditions, bonuses and working hours and it is over issues like these that conflict often occurs. The pluralist perspective during the twentieth century include a widespread distribution of authority and power in society, ownership separation from management, political separation and industrial conflict and an acceptance and institutionalization of conflict in both spheres. The priciple assumption of pluralist perspectiveContinue reading

Marxist Perspective of Industrial Relations

The Marxists perspective of industrial relations is one based on conflict. Industrial and employee relations can only be understood as part of a broader analysis of (capitalist) society. In contrast to any implicit or explicit assumptions about a balance of power in the industry, Marxists emphasize the asymmetry of power between the employer and employee. Marxists see the role of employees as sellers of their labor and employers as exploiters of that labor. The whole Marxist perspective of industrial relations is based on the proletariat and the bourgeoisie and how the bourgeoisie have with the help of capitalism kept the proletariat down. The different firms in an organisation are a reflection of society and the class divide. Marxist believe there are structured inequalities within organisations that are there to maintain the status quo and that any worker resistance is systematically suppressed by the powers of the state. The Marxist perspectiveContinue reading

Problems Faced by Trade Unions in India

The shortcomings or the weakness of the trade union movement in India are as follows: Lack of Balanced Growth: Trade unions are often associated with big industrial houses. A vast majority of the working population is without any union backing. The entire agricultural sector is highly unorganized in India. The agricultural workers are subject to all kinds of exploitation. The same is true with respect to those working in small scale and cottage industries. Lack of balanced growth of trade unions in all sectors is one of the major weakness of the trade union movement in India. Low Membership: Trade unions , with the exception of few have low membership. This is because many employees are not willing to join unions although they are ready to enjoy the benefits arising out of the union actions. The reasons for the hesitation of employees to join unions include, among others, the needContinue reading

Tactics or Strategies Adopted in Collective Bargaining

The tactics or strategies to be adopted in any collective bargaining situation vary depending upon the culture of the organization and different environmental factors, particularly the type of union operating in an industrial establishment. But the following are some of the common strategies to make collective bargaining exercise more meaningful: The management has to anticipate the demands and also understand the main directions in which the demands are going to be placed. Generally speaking, negotiations are best done if both the parties do their home work well. The representatives must come to the bargaining table equipped with the necessary information and supportive data regarding the company’s economic status and prospects, the prevailing rates of pay and conditions of employment in comparable industries in the local areas. The management team should take into consideration the financial liability involved, the past agreements, and the impact of present negotiations in future years. ItContinue reading

Unitary Perspective of Industrial Relations

The Unitary perspective of industrial relations views the organisation as a team ‘unified by a common purpose’, namely the success of the organisation. This perspective views all the people in the organisation as part of one big team. Unitarists view everyone within the organisation as part of one team with one loyalty structure. This immediately says that there are no barriers between different groups and departments which could lead to poor communication and animosity, which would go against the notion of common values and common goals as that would not be advantageous to the common goal, of the success of the organisation. The set of common goals and values that are put in place are there to try to create and maintain the order within the organisation, the ‘common’ set of values and goals are important so that all of the employees are working in unison. This is important asContinue reading

Industrial Disputes – Meaning, Prevention and Settlement

Industrial disputes are organised protests against existing terms of employment or conditions of work. According to the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947, an Industrial dispute means “Any dispute or difference between employer and employer or between employer and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or terms of employment or with the conditions of labor of any person” In practice, Industrial dispute mainly refers to the strife between employers and their employees. An Industrial dispute is not a personal dispute of any one person. It generally affects a large number of workers’ community having common interests. Prevention of Industrial Disputes: The consequences of an Industrial dispute will be harmful to the owners of industries, workers, economy and the nation as a whole, which results in loss of productivity, profits, market share and even closure of the plant. Hence, Industrial disputes need to be avertedContinue reading