Multinational Corporations and Home Country Relations

Public attitudes toward Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are biased by a nation’s position as a home or host country. Historically, home countries have perceived MNC activities as desirable extensions of their domestic business systems. Conversely host countries have viewed MNCs as agents of foreign influenced and exploitation. This historic dichotomy is now shot through with conflicting perceptions of the MNCs. Different segments of society, such as labor, investors, consumers, traders, and farmers, see their interests affected in different ways. As a result, a multi-sided controversy about the societal merits and demerits of MNCs has grown in both host and home countries. The most aggressive challenge to the traditionally supportive home country policies towards MNCs has come from organized labor. Labor Conflict Multi-nationalization has created for management new mobility and flexibility that have greatly enhanced its bargaining power vis-à-vis labor. Since the sourcing base of the multinational firm knows no national boundariesContinue reading

Concept of Export Diversification in International Business

Earlier a country’s economic development was based either on the degree of specialization or diversification of a country’s production and trade structure. Based on Adam Smith’s concept towards the division of labor and specialization for economic growth and development to Heckscher-Ohlin Samuelson (HOS) model of international trade, countries should specialize in producing and specializing in the goods in which they have a comparative advantage. However, after the Second World War, the idea was that economic growth and development may be achieved by export diversification (not specialization). There were active efforts by the government to promote industrialization and economic growth. Export diversification is often the primary objective of many developed countries. Export diversification is also equally important for many developing countries. Some of the developing countries are dependent on a relatively small range of products, generally agricultural commodities. In other words, primary products constitute a large percentage of their overall exportContinue reading

Cultural Sensitivity is Crucial Factor in Company’s International Business Success

Due to progress in communication, transformation and technologies which have performed in development of world’s economy, people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds are now communicating, meeting and doing business with each other more than ever. As there is increase in business activities between people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds, companies who are operating internationally or which are going to be a global they have to concentrate on many factors to be a successful in international market. One of the significant factors among them is a culture. For the success of any business in variety of countries or regions it requires to have understanding of how cultural differences across and within nations can affect the way business is practiced. The main determinants of culture are religion, political philosophy, economical philosophy, education, language, social structure etc. Businesses have to understand and match with all this cultural determinants, asContinue reading

Indian Depository Receipts (IDRs)

Indian Depository Receipts (IDRs) are transferable securities to be listed on Indian stock exchanges in the form of depository receipts created by a Domestic Depository in India against the underlying equity shares of the issuing company which is incorporated outside India. As per the definition given in the Companies (Issue of Indian Depository Receipts) Rules, 2004, Indian Depository Receipt is an instrument in the form of a Depository Receipt created by the Indian depository in India against the underlying equity shares of the issuing company. In an IDR, foreign companies would issue shares, to an Indian Depository (say National Security Depository Limited — NSDL), which would in turn issue depository receipts to investors in India. The actual shares underlying the IDRs would be held by an Overseas Custodian, which shall authorize the Indian Depository to issue the IDRs. The Indian Depository Receipts would have following features: Overseas Custodian: Foreign bankContinue reading

Sources of Attaining Competitive Advantage by a Business Firm

When a firm sustains profits that exceed the average for its industry, the firm is said to possess a competitive advantage over its rivals. A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service that justifies higher prices. Competitive advantages are capabilities that are difficult to replicate or imitate and are non-tradable. Pitts and Snow define a competitive advantage as “any feature of a business firm that enables it to earn a high return on investment despite counter pressure from competitors.” A competitive advantage exists when the firm is able to deliver the same benefits as the competitors are but at a lower cost (cost advantage), or deliver benefits that exceed those of competing products (differentiation advantage). Thus, a competitive advantage enables a firm to create superior value for its customers and superiorContinue reading

Structural Design of Multinational Enterprises(MNEs)

Organizational structure gives the framework or lines of communication, authority, responsibility and accountability. Organizational structure specifies the firm’s reporting relationships, procedures, controls and authority and decision processes. It is a critical component of effective strategy implementation process. Organizational structure provides for specialization and interfaces among specializations for collaborative synergism and competitive dynamism. For Multinational Enterprises(MNEs) deciding the organization structure is very important because it cannot be the same for all units and at the same time cannot be just one design for all. Whatever the design, it must be organic enough to adapt to situations. The structure must have stability to facilitate day to day activities to go on consistently and flexibility to facilitate taking advantage of opportunities that environment throws up. While it is becoming true that form must follow function, there are some traditional/ classical organizational structures that are followed; besides new structures are experimented with. Multinational Enterprises(MNEs)Continue reading