Co-Creation of Value in Marketing

Back in 1953, Neil Borden introduced the concept of Marketing Mix. In 1960, it was classified into 4Ps – product; price; place; and promotion – in 1960 by Professor McCarthy. Product can be either physical or service; Price is dependent on its value; Place refers to distribution of; and Promotion refers to communication related to marketing of the product.

The concept of ‘4Ps’ was mainly used in the past when physical product was dominant in the market. There are two main limitations of the marketing mix – common in all examined domains: (i) a model’s internal orientation; and (ii) lack of personalization.… Read the rest

Concepts of Luxury and Masstige

The word ‘luxury’ derives from the Latin word ‘luxus’ , which according to the Latin Oxford dictionary signifies ‘soft or extravagant living, indulgence’ and ‘sumptuousness, luxuriousness, opulence’ .

There are two aspects to consider when defining luxury, the psychological value and the value of the product/service itself. The psychological value of luxury comes from its function as a status symbol and from a highly involved consumption experience that is strongly congruent to a person’s self-concept. From a product perspective, luxury brands are frequently defined in terms of their excellent quality, high transaction value, distinctiveness, exclusivity and craftsmanship.

In his paper on International Retail Marketing, T.B.… Read the rest

Co-Branding – Meaning, Strategies and Benefits

Nowadays, one of the highly valued assets for a company are its brands, with branding being every company’s top priority. But it often costs the companies huge amount of money and takes them a long time to build their brand. Today’s market is suffering from a syndrome of sameness where all the products offered to the customers look very similar both in terms of sameness in the physical brand element and in the symbolic value proposition offered to the market. Thus it has become difficult to establish a unique position for new products with markets cluttered with competing brands. Even innovative differentiated products can be imitated quickly, leaving no strategic edge.… Read the rest

Ethical Issues in Marketing

Ethics are defined as the set of principles that guide a person’s conduct towards being morally right. When a person is faced with some moral dilemma, the choice that the person makes largely depends upon the values and ethical principles that person holds. It is over and above just being legal. Due to being dependent upon the personal values and principles a person holds, an ethical code of conduct cannot be described in absolute terms. Like in all the disciplines of life, recognizing and quantifying what is ethical in marketing and what is not is difficult. In a broader sense, ethics in marketing mean implementing standards of moral rights and wrongs and of fairness in the marketing practices of an organization.… Read the rest

Importance of Sound in Branding

The impact that sound creates on anyone is profound. Sound being one of the major five senses plays a vital role in everyone’s day to day activities. In a country like India, which has an extensive oral culture where even a form of medication has been passed on to the next generation orally; sound is something that matters to every single soul in one way or the other. Sound is prevalent in almost all traditional forms in India ranging from festivals to discourses. In a vast country like India, each state has its own culture and each culture has its own representation of sound in its own unique ways.… Read the rest

Application of Nostalgia Concept in Marketing

The historical term of nostalgia, initially started as a medical term. The term was coined in 1688 by Johannes Hofer (1669–1752) in his Basel dissertation to refer on ‘homesickness’. Homesickness was one of the most serious sickness during that time. The term of “nostos” which means return and “algos” which means pain, were introduced to described people that suffering pain because of being far away from home and have needs to return to their home. 

Subsequently, the term ‘nostalgia’ evolved, and moved away from being a disease. Nostalgia known as a term that refer to time: past, present and future. In order to be classified as nostalgia, there are four factors that need to be fulfilled:

  1. An emotional feeling of being lost in space and time.
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