Current breakthroughs in information technology have enabled the worldwide usage of distributed computing systems, leading to decentralize management of information. This has been supported by and has become inflamed great competition in business through faster and more precise data storage and retrieval and information processing. A number of organizations have accomplished high efficiency, comprising ease of use and lesser costs in operations by adopting a client/server computing structure. Furthermore, system integration and interoperability issues are being intensified as institutions and organizations are moving from mainframe based processes towards an open, distributed computing environment, and this situation is pressing corporations into an accelerated construction of extensive distributed systems for operational use. Technological transformations are at this point is happening and accelerating very fast that it may increase the computational power just same as the creation of desktop and personal computers did. Soon a lot of demanding computer applications will no longer be executed mainly on supercomputers and singular workstations relying on local data sources. Alternatively enterprise-wide systems, and eventually nationwide systems, will be used that include of workstations, vector supercomputers, and parallel supercomputers linked by a local and wide-area network. With this technology, users will be displayed with the illusion of a singular and highly powerful computer, rather than a collection of moderate machines. The system will program the application components on processors, administer data transfer, and moreover, it provides communication and synchronization to dramatically enhance application performance. Furthermore, barriers between computers will be concealed, similarly accompanied by the location of data as well as the drawback of processors. To demonstrate the theory of an enterprise-wide system, first think about the workstation or personal computer on a table. It can run the applications by a ratio that is generally a function of its expense, manipulate local data kept on a local disk, and perform printouts on local printers. Sharing of resources among another user is minimal and also hard. If the workstation is joined to a local area network, not only the resources of the workstation are available, but so with the network file and printers is actuality made available to be used and shared. This enables expensive equipment such as hard disks and printers to be shared, and permits data to be shared between users on the Local area network. With these types of system structure, processing resources can be divided and shared in a method by remote login to another machine. To understand an enterprise-wide system, a lot of systems in under a bigger organization, such as a company, or academic institutions are connected, so it will become additionally powerful resources such as parallel machines and vector supercomputers. Still, connection solely does not construct an enterprise-wide system. To transform a collection of devices with machines into an enterprise-wide system it requires software that can perform sharing resources such as processor cycles and databases similarly as easy as sharing files and printers on a Local area network.
Background of Enterprise-Wide Computing
The enterprise-wide computing environment is a distinct environment as of conventional host-centric information technology environments that support traditional types of information systems. In a host centric computer surrounding and environment, for an example a mainframe, each information system and application deals with its corresponding technical responsibilities independent of the other groups. The group’s productions are worked together. However, there is an intense level of independence as well as separation among the groups. In the host centric environment, the operating system along with application software work by process system resource applications between the software layers in a hierarchical method. This allows the application’s group to construct programs and transport the source program to the production environment for collection, while not corrupting different application software products. In the situation of an interruption, the program is backed out of the production surroundings and the clients carry on their regular roles using an earlier version of the program. Application computer programmers exist in a somewhat isolated world and system management is not an interest. This is a usual support approach to an organization which used these traditional system and software approach. Host centric computing environments developed for the time when hierarchical organizations were the pattern. As an outcome the information technology fields of this period were hierarchically structured. Furthermore, at that time information technology was designed and deployed to support hierarchical organization structures.
Meanwhile, in the enterprise-wide computing environment, enterprise-wide client/server information systems were developed to fit various different organizational structures for example, flat and matrix, differ from the traditional where it only fixed with the hierarchical organization structure. Client/server application provides the versatility and diversity required to support these various organizational structures. Client/server technologies allow software systems to converse with each other through a network. The systems connect clients and servers through a network that supports distributed computing, diagnosis, and presentation, given a common approach for distributing computer authorization within organizations. A client is a program that attaches to a system to request resources, and a server is a program that runs on a device listening on a designated part of the network wait for different programs to connect to it. Client/server information systems can operate separately in standalone networks or moreover, regularly as the portion of an enterprise-wide network. In this scenario, a client/server computing structure provides for the network connection of any computer or server to any other computer, allowing desktops to connect to a network and access various servers or other system resources easily. In comparison, host-centric traditional information systems run in a standalone environment. Client/server technology divided the information system in three layers. The first layer, the presentation layer, is the portion of the information systems that the customer views. For example, a web site downloaded from www.dell.com present text, pictures, video, etc. By this level, the customer inserts buying information to the dell server. The second layer is the operation layer where the algorithms execute and also the general data manipulation takes place. At dell server, the customer’s data is processed. For example, credit card confirmation and a total are decided derived from the number of items bought. In the third layer, the data layer, information is kept and fetched from the dell databases. The three layers exist in host-centric traditional information, however, execute on a particular computer.
The Importance of Enterprise-Wide Computing
The arrangement of business strategies for an organization’s information technology is a repetitive subject in an information system scope, and has appeared obviously in the latest surveys of critical concerns for information system management. Present day corporate downsizing patterns have had the effect of flattening organization structures. A conversion of information systems has gone along with this organizational flattening. Various different architectures have advanced during the transition from the monolithic centralized systems of the previous to the decentralized, distributed, client/server, and network-based computing architectures of the present day. In spite of their diversities, many of these architectures share an important attribute allocation of processing jobs or data through various computing platforms. In simple occasions this might require saving data or applications on a local area network server and retrieving it using a personal computer. In further complicated situations, is when encountering partitioning of databases and application programs, data migration, multiphase database updates, and many more. The common thread in these scenarios is the use of enterprise-wide computing to accomplish a single task. The speedy enterprise-wide computing growth during the 1990s has transformed the information system roles and its management in many institutions as well as organizations. The attributes of this transformation frequently comprise a downsizing of systems apart from mainframe environments to smaller platforms, paired with network-based accesses to information management. In different situations, it has been an increase in the dimension and sophistication of end-user developed systems, or the up scaling of departmental or local area network based computing, alongside local area network have become the repositories for mission-critical corporate information. Computing difficulties that once were allocated to mainframe computers are now regularly allocated to desktop computing platforms. Cost performance ratios keep on improving dramatically over reasonably short periods of time. The arrival of the Internet and the Web offer exceptional chances as well as demanding management problems. In the middle of an expanding set of technology alternatives, information system managers must however encounter basic inquiries with regard to the character of underlying technology infrastructures and the application of rapidly changing technologies to business decision making. The term “enterprise-wide computing architecture” is being used to define the set of computing platforms in addition to the data networking facilities to support an organization’s information needs. Once upon a time fairly well-balanced in nature, architectures are at this point is a subject to frequent alteration as organizations attempt to achieve the best fit technology to their organizations. Given the expanding set of technological alternatives, this has got turn out to be no longer an easy task to achieve. It has become an important concern for information system managers since dependence on information technology increases. Regardless of this issue, efficient strategies for specifying an enterprise-wide computing architecture are however lacking. Architectures are the appearance of an organization’s overall information system approach. Technological integration is growing viewed as a way to support the overall strategic goals of a business. Appropriate architectures of enterprise-wide computing enable organizations to meet current information needs, and to successfully adopt brand new information processing paradigms in a cost-effective method. The advantages of coordinated architectures comprise: minimization of unacceptable redundancy of system components, appropriate measurement of information processing roles to platforms, significant allocation of computing resources to organization locations, as well as the capability to share information resources among organizational bodies at a manageable expense. The idea behind the enterprise-wide computing includes the capability to centrally control and moreover manage numerous software distributions across a huge number of client’s workstations. Administering over one hundred applications across more than one thousand desktops in the enterprise-wide environment can turn out to be an ominous assignment and a nightmare. But, finding and making use of the proper tools for this task can be the single most important goal to be obtained. While IT organizations resume to grow, so does the need for simplified management tools that can contribute to greater functionality. When the total of workstations and software applications taken care of in the desktop environments carry on to grow from day to day, the organization must sequentially analyze the tools with which these environments are administered.
Issues and Difficulties of Information Sharing for Databases in Context of Enterprise-Wide Computing
The swift advancements in hardware, software, and networks technology have caused the management of enterprise wide computing network systems has become gradually a more challenging job. Due to the tight connecting among hardware, software, and data of computer peripherals, each hundreds or thousands of personal computers that are linked and connected in an enterprise level environment has got to be administered efficiently. The range and character of nowadays computing environments are incrementally changing from traditional, one-on-one client/server fundamental interaction to the brand new cooperative paradigm. It subsequently turns out to be of primary importance to provide the method of protecting the secrecy of the data and information, while promising its accessibility and availability to authorized clients. Executing on-line querying services securely on open networks is remarkably difficult. For that reason, a lot of enterprises outsource their data center operations to other application service providers. A promising management towards prevention of unauthorized access to outsourced information and data is being applied by encryption. In the majority organizations, databases contain a critical assembly of sensitive information and data. Protecting with a suitable level of protection to database content is hence, a necessary section of any comprehensive security program.
Database encryption is a proven technique that establishes an additional layer to traditional network and application-level security solutions, hindering exposure of sensitive data and information, even if the database server is compromised. Database encryption avoids unauthorized users, including intruders breaking inside an organization network, from obtaining and seeing the sensitive information and data in the databases. Likewise, it permits database administrators to carry out their jobs without enabling them to access sensitive information and data in plaintext. What’s more, encryption protects data integrity; like probably data tampering can be identified as well as data correctness can be restored. While frequently research has been done on the interchangeable impact of data and transmission security on organizational comprehensive security strategy, the impact of service outsourcing on data security has been fewer investigated. Traditional approaches to database encryption have the unique objective of protecting the data in the repository and also assume trust in the server, which decrypts data for query execution. This hypothesis is slighter justified in the modern cooperative paradigm, where various Web services cooperate and trade information in order to approach a variety of applications. Efficient cooperation among Web services along with data owners often needed critical information to be prepared continuously available for on-line querying by another services or end users. For example, telemedicine programs involve network transferring of medical data, location established services need availability of users cartographical coordinations, whereas electronic business decision support systems regularly have to to access sensitive information such as credit statuses.
Clients, partners, regulatory agencies and even suppliers nowadays usually need access to information initially intended to be kept deep within organizations information systems. executing on-line querying services securely on exposed networks is excessively difficult; for this rationality, many organizations choose to outsource their data center exercises to external application source providers rather than permitting direct access to their databases from potentially ill-disposed networks like the Internet. Additionally, outsourcing relational databases to external providers promises higher accessibility and availability with more effective disaster protection than in-house developments. For example, remote storage technologies, storage area networks are being used to place sensitive and even important organization information at a provider’s site, on systems whose architecture is particularly designed for database publishing and access is managed by the provider itself. As an outcome of this trend toward outsourcing, extremely sensitive data are now kept on systems operates in locations that are not under the data owner’s control, such as chartered space and untrusted partners locations.
Consequently, data confidentiality and even integrity can be set at risk by outsourcing data storage and its management. Adoption of security best practices in outsourced spots, such as the utilitization of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, is not under the data owner’s jurisdiction. In inclusion, data owners may not completely trust provider discretion; in the contrast, preventing a provider from looking over the data stored on its own devise and machines are extremely hard. For this nature of services to run successfully it is therefore, of its main importance to provide the way of protecting the confidentiality of the information remotely kept, while assuring its acceccibility and availability to authorized clients. The demand that the database component remains confidential to the database server itself introduces a couple of new fascinating challenges. Traditional encrypted DBMSs assume trust in the DBMS itself, which can subsequently decrypt data for query execution. In an outsourced environment outline, such hypothesis is not applicable anymore as the party to which the service is actuality outsourced cannot be granted full access to the plaintext data. Since confidentiality claims that data decryption must be possible solely by the client site, methods that can be used to countermeasure these inconveniences are needed for allowing untrusted servers to execute queries on encrypted data.