Knowledge is an capability or a ability acquire the man through the understanding. To manage this knowledge human implements the process called Knowledge management. Knowledge management is the targeted skillful and effective interaction movements in knowledge. In other words, the knowledge management is not only the managing of knowledge, but its an process of managing the organisation with a detail focus on knowledge. It is central resources that accept us to function intelligently. Knowledge management is also the transformation to other clear appearances such as traditions, technologies, books and practices within organisation of all kinds and in society in general.
Procedural knowledge that carries the way of related process and action performed. Declarative knowledge is also prescribed as knowledge of knowing (something) or ‘know what’. Procedural knowledge also prescribed as process knowledge or ‘know-how’. The procedural and declaration of knowledge is used to build the structure on knowledge base. And it may create the aware of the knowledge and can express it. This results in difference between tacit an explicit knowledge.
Tacit Knowledge means integral to the entirety of a person’s consciousness. It is acquired largely through association with other people, and it requires joint or shared activities to be imparted from one to another. Concept of Tacit knowledge is introduced by the Hungarian philosopher-chemist Michael Polanyi in his book Tacit Dimensions also called the informal knowledge. TACIT, that which, although not articulated, is understood from the nature, or from the provision of law.
The Tacit knowledge collection of all those things that we know well how to do but do not know how to explain that. The term Tacit knowledge is an biographical detail is not incidental, the account of how science proceeds was massively weighted towards the propositional, encoded, formulaic knowledge that is exchanged between laboratories, and totally unaware of the set of skills that are required to actually work in one of those laboratories. Tacit knowledge means there is a type of knowledge that is not captured by language or mathematics.
Tacit knowledge is also hard to articulate with formal languages. Before the tacit knowledge can be communicated, must be converted in to words, models, or numbers that can be understood. But the personal knowledge entrenched in individual experience and involves factors such as personal principle, and value systems.
The tacit knowledge are categorized into two Dimensions:
- Technical Dimension (procedural): Technical dimensions encompasses the kind of informal and skill often in term know-how. For example, the crafts person develops a wealth of expertise after years of experience. But he often has difficulty articulating the technical or scientific principles of his craft. Personal insight and highly subjective, institution, inspirations and hunches derived from bodily experience fall into this dimension.
- Cognitive Dimension: It consists of ideas, values, perceptions, beliefs, emotions and mental models, ingrained in us that we take them for granted. They cannot be articulated very easily, this dimension of tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the world around us.
Tacit knowledge underlies many competitive capabilities. Experience, stored as tacit knowledge often reaches consciousness in the form of insight, flashes and institutions of inspiration. Marvelous capacity of our mind to make sense of our previous experience of collection and to connect patterns from past to the present and future is essential in the innovation process. Tacit knowledge is far less tangible and is deeply embedded into an organisation’s operating practices is called organisational culture. It includes relationship, values, norms, and standard operating procedures. Because Tacit is much harder to copy, detail and distribute. Tacit knowledge can be a sustainable source of competitive advantage, this increasingly differentiates success and a failure is how you will locate, blind and leverage available explicit knowledge with internally generated tacit knowledge.
The Explicit knowledge is defined as the articulated knowledge, expressed and recorded as number, codes, words, musical notations and scientific formula. It is easy to communicate, distribute and store and the knowledge found in on the book and web and oral means and other visuals. It is quite opposite to tacit knowledge.
Explicit knowledge is a consciously understood and it can be articulated, other words, knowledge the ‘knower’ is aware of and can talk about that. On the other hand explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be quantified. It can be clearly communicated and written down to another another human being and it’s tangible and no need to gain experience, something converted to a rule. It is the type of knowledge conveyed through books, similar, articles and video presentation. For this no need to have direct experience with something to have explicit knowledge about that. For example, one of the criticisms of college students who are just graduating. They have lot of book knowledge (explicit knowledge).
Explicit knowledge is that the knower can explicit by means of a verbal statement. Someone as the explicit knowledge of something if a statement of it can be elicited from him by suitable knowledge promoting and enquiry. Explicit knowledge tests of recall or recognition whether the subject still knows in the every sense, which word are in the list.
Converting Tacit Knowledge into Explicit Knowledge
Efficient Knowledge management requires a uninterrupted knowledge conversation process. The following four modes of knowledge conversation have been postulated below:
- EXTERNALIZATION: It is the procedure of conversation of tacit into explicit knowledge, for example, the translation of a scientific trial result into a suggestion for clinical practice.
- COMBINATION: It is the mode of inspiring the obtainable explicit knowledge to procedure new bodies of knowledge, for example combining medical and organisational knowledge into s resolution support system.
- INTERNALIZATION: It is the method of individual learning by frequently executing an movement applying some type of explicit knowledge.
- SOCIALIZATION: It is the mode of knowledge by sharing experiences that creates tacit knowledge as shared mental model and professional skills, For example, apprentices learning process, or expert consensus achievement during medical meetings.
The theory of knowledge is throughout a continuous and dynamic communication between the tacit and explicit knowledge. Specially, knowledge formation occurs through four modes of conversation of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, they are socialization, combination, externalization and internalization. The knowledge is shaped only by individuals and not restrained within the individuals. The process of tacit to explicit was externalization. In the conversion process, the tacit knowledge forms the shapes of metaphors, concepts, analogies, models or hypotheses. They proposed the different concepts of knowledge conversation process and they viewed organisations as knowledge repositories. Knowledge of a structure resides necessary in a memory and is stored in organizational routines. The operational knowledge in organizations exists at a tacit level and routines are transporter of such knowledge agent. Information is essentially stored largely in memories of the members in organisation, which resides all the knowledge, articulates and tacit, that constitutes their individual skills. They consider organisations offer the context that underlies the act of understanding by its members and subsequently the background knowledge that the implementation of skill performance. The various forms of external memory are message board, manuals, computers, files, memories, these are maintained in a huge part as a regular organisation functions. And also it includes the physical state of apparatus and work surroundings generally. By the side of the context of the information infatuated by an individual member is recognized by the information infatuated by all the members. Individual memories are linked by collective experiences of the earlier period.