Research Report is the major component of the research study. Report writing is the important stage in the research activity. The hypothesis of the study, the objective of the study and the data collection and data analysis can be well presented in report. This report writing will help others to understand the findings of the research. Report writing is integral part of research and hence it cannot be isolated.
Report writing is not a mechanical process but it is an art. It requires skill.
Different Steps in Report Writing:
It is the critical stage and hence it requires patience. These is no mechanical formulate to present a report, though there are certain steps to be followed while writing a research report. The usual steps in report writing can be indicated in the following manner:
- Logical analysis of subject matter.
- Preparation of final outline.
- Preparation of Rough Draft.
- Rewriting and Polishing.
- Preparation of final Bibliography.
- Writing the final draft.
It is pertinent to follow these steps and hence it is essential to understand these steps thoroughly.
(a) Logical analysis of subject matter:
When a researcher thinks of doing a research, he must select subject and topic of his research work. The subject must be of his own interest and there must be scope for further research. Such can be selected and developed logically or chronologically. He must find out mental connections and associations by way of analysis to finalize his subject. Logical treatment often consists in developing from the simple possible to the most complex strictures. He can use the deductive method or inductive method in his research work. Secondly the alternative in selecting research subject is to use chronological method. In this method, he should concentrate on the connection or sequence in time or occurrence. The directions for doing or making something usually follow the chronological method. In this method, he should concentrate on the connection or sequence in time or occurrence. The directions for doing or making something usually follow the chronological order.
(b) Preparation of final outline:
Outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed. It is an aid to logical organization of the material and remainder of the points to be stressed in the report. He should rely on review of literature. The earlier research works can provide basic information as well as thinking to the researcher to pursue his subject.
(c) Preparation of rough draft:
The purpose of the report is to convey to the interested persons the whole result of the study in sufficient detail and so arranged as to enable each reader to comprehend the data an so determine for himself the validity of conclusions. Taking into account this purpose of research, the research report writing has its own significance. The researcher has already collected primary data and secondary data. He has also set his objectives of the study. Taking into account the objectives his study, he should make an attempt to prepare a draft report on the basis of analysis of the data. He should prepare a procedure to be followed in report writing. He must mention the limitations of his study. He may analyze data systematically with the help of statistical methods to arrive at the conclusions. The research is fact finding study which may lead the researcher to point out suggestions or recommendations.
(d) Rewriting and Polishing the rough Draft:
Research is a continuous process. Research is not the essay writing. Researcher must consider the data, write down his findings, reconsider them, and rewrite. This careful revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good piece of writing. The researcher must concentrate on weakness in the logical development or presentation. He should check the consistency in his presentation. He must be aware that his report writing must be of definite pattern. He must also take at most care of the language of writing a report.
This helps the researcher to collect secondary source of the data. This is also useful to review the earlier research work. He should prepare the bibliography from the beginning of his research work. While selecting a topic or subject of research, he must refer books, journals, research projects and enlist the important documents in systematic manner. The bibliography must be in proper form. The researcher must have separate cards, indicating following details, readily available with him, so that he can make a note of it while he refers to a book/journal/research report.
The bibliography must be included in the appendix of his research report. It must be exhaustive to cover all types of works the researcher has used. It must be arranged alphabetically. He can divide it in different sections, such as books in first section, journals in second, research reports in third etc. Generally the prescribed form for preparation of bibliography is as given below:
The book must be noted in following manner:
- Name of Author (Surname first).
- Title of book.
- Publisher’s name, place and data of publication.
- Number of volumes.
The article can be mentioned in following manner:
- Name of author (surname first)
- Title of article (in quotation mark)
- Name of periodical (underline it)
- The volume or volume and number
- Data of issue
- The pagination
(f) Final Report:
The final report must be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language. The researcher should avoid expressions in his report, such as “it seems”, “there may be” and like ones. He should avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon. He may refer to usual and common experiences to illustrate his point. The report writing is an art. No two researchers may have common style of report writing. But it must be interesting for a common man to add to his knowledge.
However report on scientific subject may have most technical presentation. The scientists may be familiar with technical concepts and they may find it valuable if such report is mostly technical in form.