The strategic management process is made up of four elements: situation analysis, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation. These elements are steps that are performed, in order, when developing a new strategic management plan. Existing businesses that have already developed a strategic management plan will revisit these steps as the need arises, in order to make necessary changes and improvements.
1. Situation Analysis
Situation analysis is the first step in the strategic management process. The situation analysis provides the information necessary to create a company mission statement. Situation analysis involves scanning and evaluating the organizational context, the external environment, and the organizational environment. This analysis can be performed using several techniques. Observation and communication are two very effective methods.
To begin this process, organizations should observe the internal company environment. This includes employee interaction with other employees, employee interaction with management, manager interaction with other managers, and management interaction with shareholders. In addition, discussions, interviews, and surveys can be used to analyze the internal environment.
Organizations also need to analyze the external environment. This would include customers, suppliers, creditors, and competitors. Several questions can be asked which may help analyze the external environment. What is the relationship between the company and its customers? What is the relationship between the company and its suppliers? Does the company have a good rapport with its creditors? Is the company actively trying to increase the value of the business for its shareholders? Who is the competition? What advantages do competitors have over the company?
2. Strategy Formulation
Strategy formulation involves designing and developing the company strategies. Determining company strengths aids in the formulation of strategies. Strategy formulation is generally broken down into three organizational levels: operational, competitive, and corporate.
Operational strategies are short-term and are associated with the various operational departments of the company, such as human resources, finance, marketing, and production. These strategies are department specific. For example, human resource strategies would be concerned with the act of hiring and training employees with the goal of increasing human capital.
Competitive strategies are those associated with methods of competing in a certain business or industry. Knowledge of competitors is required in order to formulate a competitive strategy. The company must learn who its competitors are and how they operate, as well as identify the strengths and weaknesses of the competition. With this information, the company can develop a strategy to gain a competitive advantage over these competitors.
Corporate strategies are long-term and are associated with deciding the optimal mix of businesses and the overall direction of the organization. Operating as a sole business or operating as a business with several divisions are both part of the corporate strategy.
3. Strategy Implementation
Strategy implementation involves putting the strategy into practice. This includes developing steps, methods, and procedures to execute the strategy. It also includes determining which strategies should be implemented first. The strategies should be prioritized based on the seriousness of underlying issues. The company should first focus on the worst problems, then move onto the other problems once those have been addressed.
The approaches to implementing the various strategies should be considered as the strategies are formulated. The company should consider how the strategies will be put into effect at the same time that they are being created. For example, while developing the human resources strategy involving employee training, things that must be considered include how the training will be delivered, when the training will take place, and how the cost of training will be covered.
4. Strategy Evaluation
Strategy evaluation involves examining how the strategy has been implemented as well as the outcomes of the strategy. This includes determining whether deadlines have been met, whether the implementation steps and processes are working correctly, and whether the expected results have been achieved. If it is determined that deadlines are not being met, processes are not working, or results are not in line with the actual goal, then the strategy can and should be modified or reformulated.
Both management and employees are involved in strategy evaluation, because each is able to view the implemented strategy from different perspectives. An employee may recognize a problem in a specific implementation step that management would not be able to identify.
The strategy evaluation should include challenging metrics and timetables that are achievable. If it is impossible to achieve the metrics and timetables, then the expectations are unrealistic and the strategy is certain to fail.
To conclude, the strategic management process is a continuous process. As performance results or outcomes are realized – at any level of the organization – organizational members assess the implications and adjust the strategies as needed. In addition, as the company grows and changes, so will the various strategies. Existing strategies will change and new strategies will be developed. This is all part of the continuous process of improving the business in an effort to succeed and reach company goals.