Need for Appraising Employee Performance in Organizations
There are several reasons to appraise subordinates performance. First, appraisals play, or should play, an integral role in the employer’s performance management process; it does little good to translate the employer’s strategic goals into specific employees’ goals, and then train the employees. Second, the appraisal lets the boss and subordinate develop a plan for correcting any deficiencies the appraisal might have unearthed, and to reinforce the things the subordinate does correctly. Third, appraisals should serve a useful career planning purpose by providing the opportunity to review the employee’s career plans in light of his or her exhibited strengths and weakness. And, last but not least, the appraisal almost always affect the employer’s salary raise and promotional decisions.
In reviewing the appraisal tools we discuss below don’t miss the forest for the trees. It doesn’t matter which tool you use if you’re less than candid when your subordinate is under-performing. Not all managers are devotees of such candor, but some firms like GE are famous for hard-hearted appraisals. GE’s former CEO, Jack Welch is of the opinion that, for instance, that there’s nothing crueler than telling someone who’s doing a mediocre job that he or she is doing well. Someone who might have had the chance to correct bad behavior or find a more appropriate vocation may instead end up spending years in a dead-end situation, only to leave when a tough boss comes along.
There are many practical motivations for giving soft appraisals: the fear of having to hire and train someone new; the unpleasant reaction of the appraisee; or a company appraisal process that’s not conducive to candor for instance.… Read the rest
Edgar Schein, one of the founders in the field in modern organizational psychology, pointed out that, every one of us has a particular orientation towards work. As a result of which, we all approach our work with a set of priority and certain values. This concept is known as ‘Career Anchors’. It represents one’s combination of perceived career competence and includes talents, motives, values and attitudes that give stability and direction to a person’s career. It is regarded as the ‘motivator’ or ‘driver’ of that person. The Career Anchor depicts one’s highest priority needs and the factors of work lives one may not be willing to give up. Many people are not really clear about their need and competencies and make an inappropriate career choice, that lead to dissatisfaction and frustration at work. Knowing their Career Anchor properly, people develop sufficient insight to make intelligent and appropriate career choices.
Importance and Types of Career Anchors
Almost all organisations claim to serve the best interests of employees. In practice, they “manage” their workers careers with the best interest of the organization, not the employees. Very often, people tend to select a wrong career and find it incompatible at workplaces with their true values, resulting in feelings of unrest and discontent and lost in productivity. This necessitates becoming self-reliant, to choose and manage one’s career.
Career Anchors help an individual in conceptualizing his own perceived career. It encompasses one’s core areas of competence, motives, and career values. Very often, this perceived career anchor goes against organisational career plans and employees develop a sense of dissonance or certain incongruity about their career plans.… Read the rest
Dr. Greet Hofsted had conducted a comprehensive study and explained how culture influences the values at the work place. He worked as a psychologist in IBM from 1967 to 1973. In the time of working in IBM he has collected the analyzed data from aver 100000 individual from more than forty different countries. To the above study he made some additions and he developed four dimensions and later on he added fifth dimension that is long term outlook. Geert Hofstede’s dimensions investigation can support the trade individual in enhance understanding the intercultural variance within regions.
“Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster.” – Dr. Geert Hofstede
The different dimensions of the Geert hofstede are explained below they are
- Power distance index (PDI)
- Individualism (IDV)
- Masculinity (MAS)
- Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)
- Long term orientation (LTO)
Power distance index (PDI)
This dimension explains about the degree of equality or inequality between the people in the society of a nation. A high power ranking shows the inequalities of power and wealth which have been allowed to grow with in the society. The societies are mostly following a caste system which does not permits upward mobility of its citizens. Power distance is defined as “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally”.
The second dimension of hofstede is individualism/collectivism. The concept in this dimension is discussed most frequently and it is the researched concept.… Read the rest
One way to help trainees learn analytical and problem solving skills is by presenting a story (called a case) about people in an organization who are facing a problem or decision. Cases may be faced on actual events involving real people in an organization, or they can be fictional. Business case studies are included in college text books and courses in management, public administration, law, sociology, and similar subjects. They are increasingly available using video and other media. While cases vary in complexity and detail, trainees should be given enough information to analyze the situation and recommend their own solutions. In solving the problem, the trainees are generally required to use a rational problem-solving process that includes the following steps:
- Restating important facts.
- Drawing inferences from the facts.
- Stating the problem or problems.
- Developing alternative solutions and then stating consequences of each.
- Determining and supporting a course of action.
Proponents of the case study method argue that this form of problem solving within a management setting offers illustrations of the concepts employees are respected to learn and use, improves communications skills, and facilities the linking between theory and practice. Proponents also claim that cases allow participants discuss, share, and debate the merits of different inferences, problems, and alternative courses of action. Such insight can help employees to develop better analytical skills and improve their ability to integrate new information.
A business case study can present a real-life situation, which lets trainees to consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important.… Read the rest
Self-motivation is a process wherein a person develop ways on how to keep his or her self motivated at all times despite challenging times and without direct help from other people. Experts say that self-motivation is a very important factor in a person’s life because this will help him or her see things in a positive way. This will also enable him or her to overcome challenges by developing an attitude that could withstand trials and failures.If one is able to develop a good outlook in life, everything will start falling into their proper places. In fact, he or she might even be surprised of the things that were able to accomplished in that span of time.
The ABCs of Self Motivation
If you are one of those who have just realized the importance of self-motivation and would want to start it but you just don’t know how, here are some of the things that can help you:
- Re-assess yourself. Many people think that they know themselves already that is why they decline to do self-assessment regularly. Experts say that these people don’t realize that the more that they decline doing self-reassessment, the more that they get stuck to their own routine which leaves them lesser room for improvement. If you want to start with constant self-motivation, it is best that you know yourself very well. If you know yourself well, you will know your weaknesses as well as your strengths. Once you were able to identify all of these, it will be easier for you to set goals for yourself that are within your reach and your capabilities.
… Read the rest
Job evaluation is a technique used to determine the value of each job in relation to all jobs within the organization. Its main objective is to determine the relative worth of different jobs in an organization to serve as a basis for developing rational wages and salary structure.
Like any other technique of human resource management, job evaluation is not free from certain shortcomings and limitations. Various practical problems in using job evaluation technique may be grouped into two categories: technical and operational.
1. Technical Problems
There are some technical problems involved in effective job evaluation which are of the following nature.
- Job evaluation establishes hierarchy of jobs based on their worth. Though there are various methods developed for this purpose. These are not completely objective.
- Another problem in establishing job hierarchy through job evaluation comes in the form of changing profile of job factors because of changes in environmental variables such as technology, social structure and processes and international impact. Therefore, a job hierarchy which may be workable at one point of time may not work at another point of time. Thus, in order to make job evaluation effective. it should be undertaken at regular intervals.
- Job evaluation is a costly and technical exercise. Therefore, many organisations do not prefer to take it in a formal way. Rather, they prefer to go through prevailing practices.
2. Operational Problems
Besides the technical problems, there are some operational problems too in job evaluation. These are of the following types:
- Linking jobs, based on job evaluation, and wages and salaries is not completely possible because of the operation of several forces in the environment.
… Read the rest