International and Comparative Human Resource Management

International Human Resource Management has been defined as HRM issues, functions, policies and practices that result from the strategic activities of MNEs. International Human Resource Management deals principally with issues and problems associated with the globalization of capitalism. It involves the same elements as domestic HRM but is more complex to manage, in terms of the diversity of national contexts and types of workers. The emphasis is on the MNCs’ ability to attract, develop and deploy talented employees in a multinational setting and to get them to work effectively despite differences in culture, language and locations. International HRM tends to mitigate the impact of national culture and national employment practice against corporate culture and practices.

Comparative Human Resource Management, on the other hand, is a systematic method of investigation that seeks to explain the patterns and variations encountered in cross-national HRM rather than simply describe HRM institutions and practices in different societies. Different national business systems arise from differences in specific historical, cultural and institutional heritage in certain countries. Comparative differences occur due to decisive historical events such as the process of industrialization or due to the legacy of pre-modern forms of social organisation. Hofstede adopted the ‘culturalist’ perspective where he argued that national business styles emerge due to ingrained cultural attitudes and mental schemas. He described culture under five dimensions which are power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation.

Human Resource Management policies and practices are becoming universal and that country-of-origin effects are no longer relevant. The pressure to build standardized operations internationally is strongest in sectors where competition is highly internationalized and where firms compete on the basis of a similar product or service across countries such as in cars and fast foods.… Read the rest

The Concept of Career Planning – Definition, Objectives and Process

Career is viewed as a bunch or collection of jobs or positions. Generally, it describes an applicable career path within the structure of the organization. Basically, it shows the principal personnel development paths within the organization. The etymology of the term derived from the Latin word career, which means race. All the jobs, that are held together during one’s working life, constitute career. It is also viewed as the sequence of positions held by an individual during the course of his employment life. Edwin B. Flippo defined a career, as a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning in a person’s life. A career may be viewed as amalgamation of the changes in values, attitudes and motivation an individual embrace, as he or she grows older. This constitute subjective element of the concept “career”.

Greenhaus and Schein described several themes underlying different definition of career as:

  • The property of an occupation or organisation: In this way the career describes the occupation itself or an employee’s tenure within an organisation.
  • Advancement: It denotes the progression and increase in success an individual receives within an occupation or organisation.
  • Status of a profession: In this sense, career is used to distinguish different profession. Such as engineering, medical profession is different from other occupation like plumbing carpentry etc. The former is said to have a career where the latter does not have.
  • Involvement in one’s work: Sometimes career is used in a negative sense to describe being extremely involved in the task or job one is doing.
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Developing a Reward Strategy for Your Organization

Reward is an important part of managing organization and the management of employees. It can be defined as an organization is ready to pay for to accomplish its strategic objectives. Therefore the review of reward system starts from understanding of organizational strategy and HR strategy supports this. Strategic reward objectives should be aligned with business objectives in the same way as other key business areas such as finance, marketing, administrating and IT.

In the broad way, there are two ways of reward such as tangible and intangible. The definition of these two rewards are in a way ambiguous as it could vary according to the viewers’ standpoints, but most of rewards can be classified as the tangible, which includes competitive salary, promotion, good benefits, incentive, better working environment, recognition awards and all other fringe benefits for higher performance. Whereas, intangible rewards is none monetary reward for high performance, not always requiring recognition of others in the workplace. Examples are when a sales manager gives the sales person recognition by a “pat on the back, send an appreciation e-mail and usage of bulletin board” to show appreciation for job well done.

In order to implement the reward system the most appropriate way, performance appraisal, evaluation, accomplishment rating should be done the most fair and objective way, but it is sometimes easier said than done. Due to the unfair or unreasonable evaluation, employees get depressed over the total reward system of the organization. In addition, the subjective appraisal is often taking place because of the managers’ personal preference or subjective views on some employees in particular.… Read the rest

New Roles of Human Resource Managers in Business Development

A great team of working professionals in an organization cannot be possible without the human resources. The main contribution of HR management to organizations are hiring and training the workforce, takes care of the performance management system, helps in building culture and values, manages conflict, and most importantly developing good relations. Human resources managers promote, recommend on, and implement plan associated to the usage of employees within an organisation effectively.  They are the most qualified and skilled people into the organisation to make a difference in enhancing the productivity of the employee and the organization. Their desire is to assure that the organisation hires the suitable people in terms of skills and experience, and that training and development opportunities are accessible to personnel to boost their achievement and attain the goals in the organization. HR officers are responsible in a range of activities needed by the organisation such as working ethics, recruitment, salary, terms of employment, external negotiation, and equality and diversity.

Since time immemorial, human resources have played a vital role in managing people and magnifying their full potential. There are key insights to surpass in any inevitable business growth, decline or any dynamic changes in a management.

Business Growth

First, managers should have a clear comprehension of where the organization is headed. In order for HR to anticipate fundamental stages of improvement, transition and deal with necessary shifts, they need to be genuinely familiar with the strategy, values and vision. Secondly, values and goals should be the bedrock of the business.… Read the rest

Role of Human Resource Management in Organizations Difficult Times

Today, Human Resource Management (HRM) is emphasizing on adding value in the organization as a key player. The most significant challenge for organization in difficult time (recession) is transforming of the human resource to recognize, sustain, enlarge and exploit talents in the whole organization to their fullest capacities than organization can claim that it has the best of the systems to identify talents across the organization. The management professionals and employees might undergo through the anxiety and other issues during recession and economic downturn, so organization must make plan for economic crisis.

Roles and functions of HR in the Organizational change

HR can and ought to play a key role in creating and executing organizational change and transition. HR can give help and direction in investigation and determination, highlighting the employee’s problems that will essentially influence the success of the organization. HR might recommend on resourcing programs and planning and executing the key learning, reward, aspects of involvement and communications process. HR can foresee individual’s issues and manage them before they get serious. If the program does include rebuilding and downsizing, HR can recommend on how this ought to be carried out empathetically and with the base interruption to individuals’ live.

When the business is in turbulence zone, HR can put its straight out best in guaranteeing that he directs the corporate effectively. HR needs to be capable in such circumstances in light of the fact that they not just need to keep up the individuals inspiration level however needs to expand it utilizing non-money related apparatuses.… Read the rest

Designing Strategy-Supportive Reward Systems in Organizations

Creating a strategy-supportive reward structure for an organization is an important task as it is a powerful management tools for gaining employee buy-in and commitment. Meanwhile, the key to creating a reward system is to promote relevant measures of performance that the dominating basis for designing incentives, evaluating individual and group efforts, and handling out rewards. In a competitive business climate, more business owners are looking at improvements in quality while reducing costs. While businesses need to get more from their employees, their employees are looking for more out of them. Employee reward and recognition programs are one method of motivating employees to change work habits and key behavior’s to benefit a business.

As the strategy-supportive reward structure motivates and attracts the employee, designing the reward structure for an organization is quite complex. This is because the importance of the reward structure should define on the job and assignment in terms of the results to be accomplished and not just in terms of the duties to be performed.

A properly spelled out reward structure will emphasis all the below items in the process of developing the reward structure:

  1. Identification of company goals that the reward program will support: The team whom designing a reward program must identify the companies goals to be reached and the behavior’s or performance that will contribute towards the company goals and develop the reward structure which will attracts the employees to achieve the goals in order to be rewarded.
  2. Identify the desired employee performance or behavior’s that will reinforce the company’s goals: By identifying the desired employees performance or behavior’s that will help the company to achieve the goals, the team whom designing the reward program could include in the performance measurement and desired behaviors into the reward structure.
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