Multinational Corporations and Home Country Relations

Public attitudes toward Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are biased by a nation’s position as a home or host country. Historically, home countries have perceived MNC activities as desirable extensions of their domestic business systems. Conversely host countries have viewed MNCs as agents of foreign influenced and exploitation. This historic dichotomy is now shot through with conflicting perceptions of the MNCs. Different segments of society, such as labor, investors, consumers, traders, and farmers, see their interests affected in different ways. As a result, a multi-sided controversy about the societal merits and demerits of MNCs has grown in both host and home countries. The most aggressive challenge to the traditionally supportive home country policies towards MNCs has come from organized labor. Labor Conflict Multi-nationalization has created for management new mobility and flexibility that have greatly enhanced its bargaining power vis-à-vis labor. Since the sourcing base of the multinational firm knows no national boundariesContinue reading

Franchising – Definition, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Meaning and Definitions of Franchising In a sense, franchising is very much similar to branching. Franchising is a system for selectively distributing goods or services through outlets owned by the retailer or dealer. Basically, a franchise is a patent or trademark license, entitling the holder to market particular products or services under a brand name or trademark according the different terms and conditions. The origins of franchising as it is now defined can be clearly traced to one man: Isaac Singer. After the US Civil War in the 1860s, Singer had achieved the ability to mass-produce his famous sewing machines, but had no economically viable way of repairing and maintaining them across a country as geographically vast as the US. He began to license out servicing and repairs to local merchants around the country, who were later permitted to become regional salesmen for the machines too. Singer’s use of aContinue reading

Concept of Export Diversification in International Business

Earlier a country’s economic development was based either on the degree of specialization or diversification of a country’s production and trade structure. Based on Adam Smith’s concept towards the division of labor and specialization for economic growth and development to Heckscher-Ohlin Samuelson (HOS) model of international trade, countries should specialize in producing and specializing in the goods in which they have a comparative advantage. However, after the Second World War, the idea was that economic growth and development may be achieved by export diversification (not specialization). There were active efforts by the government to promote industrialization and economic growth. Export diversification is often the primary objective of many developed countries. Export diversification is also equally important for many developing countries. Some of the developing countries are dependent on a relatively small range of products, generally agricultural commodities. In other words, primary products constitute a large percentage of their overall exportContinue reading

Cultural Sensitivity is Crucial Factor in Company’s International Business Success

Due to progress in communication, transformation and technologies which have performed in development of world’s economy, people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds are now communicating, meeting and doing business with each other more than ever. As there is increase in business activities between people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds, companies who are operating internationally or which are going to be a global they have to concentrate on many factors to be a successful in international market. One of the significant factors among them is a culture. For the success of any business in variety of countries or regions it requires to have understanding of how cultural differences across and within nations can affect the way business is practiced. The main determinants of culture are religion, political philosophy, economical philosophy, education, language, social structure etc. Businesses have to understand and match with all this cultural determinants, asContinue reading

Foreign Market Entry Modes – Five Modes of Foreign Market Entry

Changes in the internal and external business environment have meant that more and more firms are expanding their operations across country borders. External factors such as: the removal of trade barriers, free trade agreements between countries, and an emerging middle class has made the idea of going global more attractive to organisations across the world. Internal factors such as: increasing profits, increasing market share and becoming a global brand are more drivers for organisations to globalize. Whilst there are a lot of drivers of internationalization, and hence potential advantages to internationalize. Types of Foreign Market Entry Modes An organisation has a number of different entry modes to choose from when it internationalizes its operations. All organisations will have different reasons for going global, which will have an influence on which entry mode is best suited to them. An organisation will need to determine their desired level of commitment, flexibility, control,Continue reading

Sources of Attaining Competitive Advantage by a Business Firm

When a firm sustains profits that exceed the average for its industry, the firm is said to possess a competitive advantage over its rivals. A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service that justifies higher prices. Competitive advantages are capabilities that are difficult to replicate or imitate and are non-tradable. Pitts and Snow define a competitive advantage as “any feature of a business firm that enables it to earn a high return on investment despite counter pressure from competitors.” A competitive advantage exists when the firm is able to deliver the same benefits as the competitors are but at a lower cost (cost advantage), or deliver benefits that exceed those of competing products (differentiation advantage). Thus, a competitive advantage enables a firm to create superior value for its customers and superiorContinue reading

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