Elizabeth Noelle–Neumann’s Spiral of Silence theory analyses and demonstrates how interpersonal communication and media operate together in the development of public opinion. Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann is a German political scientist. Through this Spiral of Silence theory Neumann indirectly explains the Jews status during World War II under Nazi’s control. Adolf Hitler dominated the whole society and the minority Jews became silent due to the fear of isolation or separation.
This theory states that in elections certain views seem to get more play than others. Sometimes people mute their opinions rather than talk about them. It occurs when individuals express when they perceive that their opinion is popular and those who think otherwise remain quiet. This process occurs in a spiral, so that one side of an issue ends up with much publicity and the other side with little. This expression/non-expression rests on two premises. The first is that people know which opinions are popular. The second is that people adjust their expression of opinion to these perceptions. Psychologists believe that this ‘Spiral of Silence’ is caused by fear of isolation as the ‘Spiral of Silence’ is not just a matter of wanting to be on winning side but is an attempt to avoid being isolated from one’s social group. Threats of criticism are also powerful forces in silencing individuals. This process affects public opinion but these are exceptions as there are groups and individuals who do not fear isolation and express their opinion irrespective of outcome.
For example, in a company the managing director decides to increase their working hour from 8 to 10 and send e-mail to all employees.… Read the rest
The need to centralize or decentralize usually comes down to weighing the considerations of company size, product, or service diversity, and geographic spread. For a company as diverse and large as General Electric, for example, the question was moot. Such a huge, diverse organization involved in activities as different as aerospace and network television cannot possibly remain completely centralized in all of its communication activities. Perhaps then, the best structure for large companies is some combination of a strong, centralized, functional area plus a network of decentralized operatives helping to keep communications consistent throughout the organization while adapting the function to the special needs of the independent business unit.
Despite its advantages, the mix of centralized and decentralized activities presents problems for organizations in terms of reporting relationships. If the communications operatives report to their local managers, as they inevitably would, they will run into problems when the manager from headquarters disagrees with an action taken at the local level. On the other hand, if they report to headquarters, the operatives may not fit in with the rest of the organization at the local level.
These problems can often be handled creatively using some combination of both a strong centralized control for all affairs related to communications through out the company and the participation of the local operatives who, as in the case of General Electric, act as “reporters” back at headquarters. The problem of centralization versus decentralization across business units will be more or less important depending on company size, geographic dispersion, and the diversity of the company’s products and services.… Read the rest
Normative theories are theories that seek to locate media structure and performance in the milieu (environment) in which they operate, they are observation of situation within which the press operate. The basic assumption of the normative theory is that, “the press always take on the form and coloration of the social and political structure within which it operate” (Siebert, Peterson and Schramm, 1995). They are theories that explain the expected operation of media under political and economical circumstance The origin of normative theories of the press seen from two opposing view points, (1.) Radical libertarian (first amendment absolutist) and technocratic control, the first amendment absolutist takes the idea of “ free press” as literal and oppose government regulation while the technocrats do not trust the media and believes in use of regulators to act in the public interest, and (2.) Propaganda and mass society theories are used to justify media regulation. There are six normative theories of the press, in 1950 Siebert et al mentioned four theories, two more were added by McQuail in 1980. These theories are;
1. Authoritarian Theory
This theory evolved in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, spreading throughout Europe with the invention of the printing press, The authoritarian theory views humans as subservient to the state. They held the belief that the ruling elite should guide the masses, whose intellectual ability was held in low esteem. Public dissent and criticism were considered harmful to both government and the people and were not tolerated. The press in such a society is viewed as an instrument for disseminating the state’s position to the public, informing (lie public what is right and wrong based on the state’s interpretations of issues, and providing official policy statements of the ruling elite.… Read the rest
Multiparty negotiation is a negotiation process in where more than two parties are working together to reach a collective objective. In the multiparty negotiation process, each party has his own preferences and priorities. Therefore, a meeting is required to make a discussion about the best options for everybody and make a collective decision. This is a multiparty negotiation that involves unique dynamics in a collective decision-making process.
However, the process is not that easy to manage. There are factors that make multiparty negotiations more difficult to manage than one-on-one negotiation. First of all, number of parties makes the negotiation become bigger and create challenges for managing several different perspectives. It is difficult to ensure that each party has enough time to speak his own preference and be heard. Secondly, informational and computational complexity brings in more issues, more perspectives on issues, and more total information. Increasing the number of parties make the negotiation situation less lucid, and more demanding. Many people involving in a decision-making also create social complexity. The social environment would change from a one-on-one dialogue to a small-group discussion. As a result, all the dynamics of small groups begin to affect the way the negotiators behave, and participate. Besides, when more parties are involved in a negotiation, the process individual has to follow is more complicated. Parties take longer time to present the issues and it takes longer to reach the negotiation objective. The parties may have to negotiate a new process that allows them to coordinate their actions more effectively.… Read the rest
In the world of business the most difficult thing to achieve, is perhaps, nothing but the negotiation table. Reaching a negotiated settlement and winning over the other side is the most complex and intricate task for which our marketers always strive for. From the management science to the business calculus and from the politics to the diplomacy as well as from the socialism to psychology, negations include and encompass every art. Negotiating people need to be resumed not only in one of above mentioned disciplines, but they should have the mastery to employ all the tools, when required.
With the rapidly changing world of the business and economics the art of the negotiation is also becoming more and more volatile and evaporative. One can’t suppose the negotiated settlements to withstand or stay for the certain period of the time but the need to renegotiate can be arisen any time when any one of the party involved, feels unsatisfied. While sitting on the discussion table one can’t rely on just business realities, one can’t suppose the comparative studies or factual interpretation might be bringing the desired results. One can’t suppose to beat the competitor just by resorting to the logics or by employing the rationalism but what needs to born in mind is that he might even be required to perform emotionally and passionately to turn the table over, in addition to all the rational thinking and negotiating arts.
Most of the time it is not just the reasoning and the rational thinking through which we can reach at the mutually negotiated settlement.… Read the rest