An accounting framework is a coherent system of inter-related objectives and fundamentals that should lead to consistent standards that prescribe the nature, function and limits of financial accounting and financial statements. The main reason for developing a conceptual framework are that gives a framework for setting accounting standards, a basis for resolving accounting disputes and fundamental principles which then do not have to be repeated in accounting standards. Furthermore, Conceptual Framework can be categorized in terms of the distinctive function of management accounting within the management process in organizations. Moreover, the way in which the utility of the outcomes of the management accounting process can be tested.… Read the rest
Agency theory refers to a contract whereby principals engage with agents to perform some act on their behalf. The act involved giving power to an agent for some decision-making. Everyone work on the feet of benefit that can be gained for oneself. That’s why it is strongly agreed that the agent, as a utility maximizer will not act in the best interest of the principal. Therefore, agents may cheat if they were not monitored by the principal, and the principal, on the other hand, must bear agency costs to avoid suffering loss. These agency costs include monitoring costs of an agent, bonding costs whereby the agent will try to show that they are not self-serving, and residual losses that are too costly to monitor.… Read the rest
In modern finance, it is proven that shareholder wealth maximization is the superior goal of a firm and shareholders are the residual claimants; therefore maximizing shareholder returns usually implies that firms must also satisfy stakeholders such as customers, employees, suppliers, local communities, and the environment first. Also, a firm’s value can not be maximized if the management board or shareholders ignores the interest of its stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of a firm is to maximize shareholder wealth but it does not mean that management should disregard stakeholders.
To begin with, it is necessary to understand what is shareholder wealth and why maximizing shareholder wealth is a superior objective?… Read the rest
The financial failure of a company can have a devastating effect on all seven users of financial statements e.g. present and potential investors, customers, creditors, employees, lenders, the general public, etc. As a result, users of financial statements as indicated previously are interested in predicting not only whether a company will fail, but also when it will fail e.g. to avoid high profile corporate failures at Enron, Arthur Anderson, and WorldCom, etc. Users of financial statements can predict the financial position of an organization using the Altman Z score model, Argenti A score model, and by looking at the financial statements i.e.… Read the rest
In banking, asset and liability management (ALM) is used to manage the risks that arise due to mismatches between the assets and liabilities (debts and assets) of the bank. Banks face several risks like liquidity risk, market risk, interest rate risk, credit risk, and operational risk. Asset Liability Management (ALM) is a strategic management tool to manage interest rate risk and liquidity risk faced by banks, other financial services companies, and corporations. Banks manage the risks of Asset liability mismatch by matching the assets and liabilities according to the maturity pattern or matching the duration, by hedging and by securitization.
Asset and liability management remain high-priority areas for bank regulators, with an emphasis on the management of market risk, liquidity risk, and credit risk.… Read the rest
Financial intermediation is defined as the process which had been carried out by the financial intermediaries as the middleman between the borrower (spender) and lender (saver) to smooth the flow of the fund. Financial intermediation called the process of using indirect finance in the financial system, which the primary route to transfer funds from lender to borrower. Those savers who have the surplus money will deposit their funds in the financial institution, which will lend those funds to borrowers such as business firms, households, government, or foreigners who shortage of funds. Financial intermediaries are that financial institutions such as commercial banks, finance companies, or merchant banks.… Read the rest