Work Study – Meaning, Importance and Procedure

Work Study forms the basis for work system design. The purpose of work design is to identify the most effective means of achieving necessary functions. Work study aims at improving the existing and proposed ways of doing work and establishing standard times for work performance. Work design involves job design, work measurement and the establishment of time standards and worker compensation. Work Study is encompassed by two techniques -method study and work measurement (time study): Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and methods and reducing costs. Work measurement (or Time study) is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. There is a close link between method study and work measurement. Method study isContinue reading

Kaizen – The Philosophy of Continuous Improvement

What is Kaizen? Japan’s management philosophy has introduced a new creative strategy for competitive success in business, or the so-called “Kaizen” model. The term Kaizen began to receive attention from management experts and scholars around the world when Masaaki Imai published his first book in 1986, “The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success”. Kaizen is a Japanese word with literally mean improvement, taken from words ‘Kai’, which means continuous and ‘zen’ which means improvement. Some translate ‘Kai’ to mean change and ‘zen’ to mean good, or for the better. In the context of Lean manufacturing, kaizen is understood to signify small, incremental, and frequent improvements to a process. Lean philosophy states that the large improvement which just require small amounts of investment and risk. The kaizen main mindset is making process improvements without adding people and space to the process. The more important one is implement the change without spending theContinue reading

Three Key Elements of Six Sigma Process

Six Sigma is a widely used Operational Approach towards Operations Management and is frequently applied within Manufacturing Businesses, however the fundamental processes also apply within businesses operating within the Service Industry. The Purpose of Six Sigma is to reduce process variation so that virtually all the products or services provided meet or exceed customer expectations. Six Sigma adopts a very data driven, disciplined method for eliminating defects within processes and promoting business improvement within organisations. Six Sigma is able to show quantitatively how a process is performing and to achieve ‘Six Sigma Status’, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. Six Sigma is dissected into three core elements including: Process Improvement, Process Design/Re-Design & Process Management and will be explored below. 1. Process Improvement The Process Improvement aspect of the Six Sigma Model addresses the concept of improving existing processes with the ultimate objective ofContinue reading

Steps in Production Planning and Control

Production planning and control is one of the most important phases of production management, it is, as a matter of fact, the nervous system of a manufacturing organization. In manufacturing organization, it is essential that production is carried on in the best manner at the lowest cost, and the goods are of right quality and are produced at the proper time. This can be ensured only through proper planning of production. but mere planning of production will not solve the problem because production plans are not capable of self-actuating and do not lead to automatic accomplishment. For that the production manager has to take certain steps like, he has to regulate work assignment, review the work progress, and devise methods to bring conformity between the actual performance and planned performance — so that plans chalked out are adhered to and the standards set at the planning stage are properly attainedContinue reading

Meaning of Value Analysis

The purchasing manager conducts value analysis that aims mainly at achieving cost effectiveness and maintaining the required level of quality. Value analysis is an organized effort that studies in detail the ‘value’ of material. Value Analysis reviews the design changes with the objective of eliminating high cost materials and the materials that are technically obsolete and reducing the number of parts. After analyzing the functions and cost of material, the purchasing manager evaluates the possibilities of using the material. Value Analysis can be defined as a process of systematic review that is applied to existing product designs in order to compare the function of the product required by a customer to meet their requirements at the lowest cost consistent with the specified performance and reliability needed. The Value Analysis technique was developed after the Second World War in America at General Electric during the late 1940s. Because of World War,Continue reading

Lean Manufacturing – Definition, History and Objectives

Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production. It focuses on less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product. Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS). Lean manufacturing is a technique that allows companies to be more responsive to quickly changing markets and more sophisticated & demanding customers. History of Lean Manufacturing Toyota is often considered one of the most efficient manufacturing companies in the world and the company that sets the standard for best practices in Lean Manufacturing. Lean Manufacturing has increasingly been applied by leading manufacturing companies throughout the world, lead by the major automobile manufactures and their equipment suppliers. Lean Manufacturing is becoming an increasingly important topic for manufacturing companies in developed countries as they try to find ways toContinue reading