Importance of Capital Controls in Economic Policy

Globalization of capital investment and finance has surfaced for a long period of time in the world of global financial market. Capital flow liberalization has brought up the importance of capital controls for some countries to achieve their economic growth. The Description of Capital Controls Since the failure of Bretton Woods system in 1971, the international capital movements within developed and developing countries become unstable and for some countries the capital flows need to be controlled. Capital controls are restrictions to regulate the movement of capitals which are flowing in or out of the country. Capital flows may be in forms of bank loans, portfolio investment and foreign direct investment. The controls of short terms portfolio investment and bank loans are quite necessary since they are quite risky because of the roll-over risks. For long term credits and FDI are less risky if they are politically guaranteed. Looking back toContinue reading

The Concept of Profit Standards in Managerial Economics

Standards of reasonable profits are determined when a firm chooses to make only reasonable profits rather than to maximize its profit. The questions that arise in this regard are as follows: What form of profit standards should be used? How should reasonable profits be determined? These questions can be understood after going through the following explanatory points. Forms of Profit Standards Profit standards is determined in terms of the following: Aggregate money terms Percentage of sales, and Percentage return on investment. All these standards are determined for each product separately. Among all the forms of profit standards, the total net profit of the firm is more common than other standards. But when the purpose is to discourage the competitors, then the target rate of return on investment is the appropriate profit standard, provided the cost curves of competitors’ are similar. The profit standard in terms of ratio to sales isContinue reading

Unemployment – Meaning, Causes and Effects

The economists describe unemployment as a condition of jobless within an economy. Unemployment is lack of utilization of resources and it eats up the production of the economy. It can be concluded that unemployment is inversely related to productivity of the economy. Unemployment generally defined as the number of persons (It is the percentage of labor force depends on the population of the country) who are willing to work for the current wage rates in society but not employed currently. Unemployment reduces the long run growth potential of the economy. When the situation arises where there are more other resources for the production and no man power leads to wastage of economic resources and lost output of goods and services and this has a great impact on government expenditure directly. High unemployment causes less consumption of goods and services and less tax payments results in higher government borrowing requirements. TheContinue reading

4 Important Types of Decentralization

The term “decentralization” embraces a variety of concepts which must be carefully analyzed in any particular country before determining if projects or programs should support reorganization of financial, administrative, or service delivery systems. Decentralization—the transfer of authority and responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government organizations and/or the private sector—is a complex multifaceted concept. Different types of decentralization should be distinguished because they have different characteristics, policy implications, and conditions for success. Types of decentralization include political, administrative, fiscal, and market decentralization. Drawing distinctions between these various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the need for coordination among them. Nevertheless, there is clearly overlap in defining any of these terms and the precise definitions are not as important as the need for a comprehensive approach. Political, administrative, fiscal and market decentralization can also appear in different forms andContinue reading

Alternative Objectives of Business Firms

The traditional theory does not distinguish between owners and managers’ interests. The recent theories of firm, which are also called managerial and behavioral theories of firm, assume owners and managers to be separate entities in large corporations with different goals and motivation. In this section, some important alternative objectives of business firms, especially of large business corporations are also discussed. 1. Baumol’s Hypothesis of Sales Revenue Maximization According to Baumol, “maximization of sales revenue is an alternative to profit maximization objective“. The reason behind this objective is to clearly distinct ownership and management in large business firms. This distinction helps the managers to set their goals other than profit maximization goal. Under this situation, managers maximize their own utility function. According to Baumol, the most reasonable factor in managers utility functions is maximization of the sales revenue. The factors, which help in explaining these goals by the managers, are following: Salary and other earnings of managers are more closely related to seals revenue than toContinue reading

Conditions and Forms of Price Discrimination

In today’s economic conditions in which the markets being far from full competitive state resulted the firms functioning in this market to become more or less a price-maker. For this reason, one of the ways for the firms that aim to increase the total income thus the total profit can use is, to implement different pricing for consumers with different specialties instead of applying the same pricing for all the consumer groups. Because the consumers having different income levels, taste and choice cause them to have a desire to pay different price for the product in question. One of the pricing strategies foresees different pricing for different consumer groups is price discrimination. The implementation of price discrimination will bring the firm that aims to maximize the profit in an advantageous position in the market. This advantage, generated from the desire of consumers that have different taste and income who areContinue reading