Crisis in Organizations: Stages and Types

Companies face problems all the time, and solve them one way or another. Sometimes one of these problems is difficult-at least at the time it occurs-and it becomes public interest with the help of the press. This problem is then known as a Crisis, where the company is faced with legal, political, financial and governmental impact on its business. The most serious property of crises is the element of surprise. The worst part in their handling is being unprepared.

Crisis can come from nowhere at any time; natural disasters, human error, and industrial accidents can all cause crisis. Sometimes the cause of a crisis is management itself; managers may insist that they face no crisis, and they fall into the brink of lying and rejection of its existence.… Read the rest

Use of Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory in Behavioral Modification

What is Behavioral  Modification?

All organisations are set up with particular core goals and aims in mind. Various resources including money, machines and manpower are utilized to achieve these goals. Modern businesses often refer to their Human Resources (manpower) as their biggest and most important asset and it is widely understood that this single resource plays a vital and irreplaceable role in the attainment of success and the achievement of an organisation’s objectives. Thus, human behavior at work plays an essential role in the smooth functioning of day to day activities as well the targeted long term goals. It is essential for a manager to posses the skills to identify and predict undesired behavior and bring about required changes in order to make human behavior at work productive and supportive to the organisation’s goals.… Read the rest

Concept of Personality in Organizational Behavior

The term personality has been derived from the Latin word “Persona” which was associated with Greek theater in ancient times. The Greek actors commonly used to wear masks on their faces during their performances on the stage. The mask worn by the actors was called persona. Personality was thought to be the effect and influence which the individual wearing a mask left on the audience.

Personality is a term that has many general meanings. Sometimes the word refers to the ability to get along well socially. For example, we speak of experiences or relationships, which are said to give a person “more personality.”… Read the rest

Jay Galbraith’s Star Model of Organizational Design

Organizational design is not simply about structure and the resulting organizational chart.  It is about the relationships between people, work, formal structures and informal practices and behaviors. It is about the way in which an organization structures and coordinates its people and process so it can benefit from its unique capabilities over the long-term.  It  determines who makes decisions and how those decisions will be made. It changes the role of the leaders as they become less decision makers and more decision shapers. Through organizational design, leaders become the shapers of the organization’s decision-making process. Organizational design and the resulting capabilities are the last sustainable sources of  competitive advantage.… Read the rest

Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth – Phases of Organizational Growth and Crisis

All organizations pass through various stages of growth and at each stage the  organization is required to solve some specific problems.

A very useful model of organizational growth has been developed by Larry E. Greiner.  In his 1998 Harvard Business Review article entitled “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow,” Greiner outlined five phases of growth punctuated by what he termed “revolutions” that shook up the status quo and ushered in the successive stage.

Greiner’s Model of organizational growth  is based on certain assumptions about the organization which are as under: First assumption is organisations are rigid, bureaucratic, control-centric, and centralized entities.… Read the rest

Concept of Reinforcement in Organizational Behavior

Reinforcement is the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior. There are two types of reinforcement in organizational behavior: positive and negative.

Positive reinforcement strengthens and enhances behavior by the presentation of positive reinforcers. There are primary reinforcers and secondary reinforcers. Primary reinforcers satisfy basic biological needs and include food and water. However, primary reinforcers don not always reinforce. For instance, food may not be a reinforcer to someone who has just completed a five course meal. Most behaviors in organizations are influenced by secondary reinforcers. These include such benefits as money, status, grades, trophies and praise from others. These include such benefits as money, status, grades, trophies and praise from others.… Read the rest