International and Comparative Human Resource Management

International Human Resource Management has been defined as HRM issues, functions, policies and practices that result from the strategic activities of MNEs. International Human Resource Management deals principally with issues and problems associated with the globalization of capitalism. It involves the same elements as domestic HRM but is more complex to manage, in terms of the diversity of national contexts and types of workers. The emphasis is on the MNCs’ ability to attract, develop and deploy talented employees in a multinational setting and to get them to work effectively despite differences in culture, language and locations. International HRM tends to mitigate the impact of national culture and national employment practice against corporate culture and practices.

Comparative Human Resource Management, on the other hand, is a systematic method of investigation that seeks to explain the patterns and variations encountered in cross-national HRM rather than simply describe HRM institutions and practices in different societies. Different national business systems arise from differences in specific historical, cultural and institutional heritage in certain countries. Comparative differences occur due to decisive historical events such as the process of industrialization or due to the legacy of pre-modern forms of social organisation. Hofstede adopted the ‘culturalist’ perspective where he argued that national business styles emerge due to ingrained cultural attitudes and mental schemas. He described culture under five dimensions which are power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation.

Human Resource Management policies and practices are becoming universal and that country-of-origin effects are no longer relevant. The pressure to build standardized operations internationally is strongest in sectors where competition is highly internationalized and where firms compete on the basis of a similar product or service across countries such as in cars and fast foods.… Read the rest

Career Management – Definition and Meaning

Career is a general course of action, an individual chooses to pursue, all through his or her employment life. It may be represented as occupational positions a person has hold over so many years. Many people feel satisfied by achieving their career goals. At the same time, others have a strong feeling that, their careers, their lives and their potential has undergone unfulfilled. Employers too have a profound effect on employees’ careers. Some organisations have very formal career management processes, while others are very little concern about it. Career management is defined as the ongoing process of preparing, implementing and monitoring career plans. It can be undertaken either by the individual alone or can be a concerted activity along with the organisation’s career systems.

Career management is a process that enables the employees to better understand their career skills, develop and give direction to it and to use those skills and interests most effectively both within and outside the organisation. Specific career management activities provide realistic career oriented appraisals, posting open jobs and offering formal career development activities. Career development involves the lifelong series of activities that contribute to a person’s career exploration, establishment, growth, success, and fulfillment. Career planning is the deliberate process by which an individual becomes aware of his or her personal skills, interests, motivations, knowledge and other such characteristics. He also seeks and acquires information about the opportunities and choices, identifies career-related goals and establishes action plans to attain specific goals. Career management and career planning activities are complementary and can reinforce each other.… Read the rest

Diversity Management

The world’s increasing globalization trend demands more interaction between people from a vast diverse of cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds than the past. Today, people no longer live and work in an insulated marketplace. The reality is they are now part of a worldwide (or commonly mentioned as flatten) economy with competition coming from nearly every angle of the globe. For this reason, businesses need to be open to change and accept the concept of diversity to become more creative.

In daily conversation, the word of “diversity” has the meaning of differences or variety. However, in the business world and in the business textbook, diversity often refers to the many differences present among people today in workplace as well as marketplace that were not aware of by most people in the past. Diversity management is often referred as acknowledging, understanding, accepting, valuing, and celebrating differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental ability, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and public assistance status for better workplace performance. The term diversity management indicates the implementation of strategies or policies to knit a network of varied individuals together into a dynamic work force.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Management

In recent years, diversity is increasingly perceived as an important issue in the context of business management. This is due to the increasing differences in the population, globalization process, increasing of international business and cross borders business dealing activities. In the business community, companies have also tend to pay more focus on diversity and look for ways to reap the opportunities offered by diversity as they acknowledge that diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages.… Read the rest

Developing a Reward Strategy for Your Organization

Reward is an important part of managing organization and the management of employees. It can be defined as an organization is ready to pay for to accomplish its strategic objectives. Therefore the review of reward system starts from understanding of organizational strategy and HR strategy supports this. Strategic reward objectives should be aligned with business objectives in the same way as other key business areas such as finance, marketing, administrating and IT.

In the broad way, there are two ways of reward such as tangible and intangible. The definition of these two rewards are in a way ambiguous as it could vary according to the viewers’ standpoints, but most of rewards can be classified as the tangible, which includes competitive salary, promotion, good benefits, incentive, better working environment, recognition awards and all other fringe benefits for higher performance. Whereas, intangible rewards is none monetary reward for high performance, not always requiring recognition of others in the workplace. Examples are when a sales manager gives the sales person recognition by a “pat on the back, send an appreciation e-mail and usage of bulletin board” to show appreciation for job well done.

In order to implement the reward system the most appropriate way, performance appraisal, evaluation, accomplishment rating should be done the most fair and objective way, but it is sometimes easier said than done. Due to the unfair or unreasonable evaluation, employees get depressed over the total reward system of the organization. In addition, the subjective appraisal is often taking place because of the managers’ personal preference or subjective views on some employees in particular.… Read the rest

Electronic Human Resource (e-HR)

e-HR stands for Electronic Human Resource. The term e-HR refers to deal Human Resource Management transactions using an internet. E-HR aims to keep information available to employees and managers at anywhere at any time. E-HR may include organizations HR portals and web applications, Enterprise Resource Planning, HR service centers and interactive voice response. There are three identified levels of e-HR such as publishing of information (delivered by intranet medium), automation of transactions with integration of workflow (intranet or extranet used) and transformation of the HR function (redirect HR function towards a strategic one). E-HR is characterized in field of HRM as having numerous innovations in Technology and it provides wider potential in term of usages including employee self service, information sharing, functions administration and production of reports.

e-HR make use of technology to create a real-time, information-based Self-service, interactive work environment. With e-HR, managers can access relevant information and data, conduct analyses, decision making and communicate with others and employees are able to control their own personal information like update their records when it changes and make any decision on their own without consulting with any professionals help.

e-HR will effect both efficiency and effectiveness of Human resources function in such a way that the efficiency of the human resource process can be effected by reducing cycle time for paperwork, improvements is data accuracy and reducing manpower requirement. In similar way the effectiveness of human resource process will be effected by improving the capabilities of both employees and managers to make a better and accurate decisions.… Read the rest

New Roles of Human Resource Managers in Business Development

A great team of working professionals in an organization cannot be possible without the human resources. The main contribution of HR management to organizations are hiring and training the workforce, takes care of the performance management system, helps in building culture and values, manages conflict, and most importantly developing good relations. Human resources managers promote, recommend on, and implement plan associated to the usage of employees within an organisation effectively.  They are the most qualified and skilled people into the organisation to make a difference in enhancing the productivity of the employee and the organization. Their desire is to assure that the organisation hires the suitable people in terms of skills and experience, and that training and development opportunities are accessible to personnel to boost their achievement and attain the goals in the organization. HR officers are responsible in a range of activities needed by the organisation such as working ethics, recruitment, salary, terms of employment, external negotiation, and equality and diversity.

Since time immemorial, human resources have played a vital role in managing people and magnifying their full potential. There are key insights to surpass in any inevitable business growth, decline or any dynamic changes in a management.

Business Growth

First, managers should have a clear comprehension of where the organization is headed. In order for HR to anticipate fundamental stages of improvement, transition and deal with necessary shifts, they need to be genuinely familiar with the strategy, values and vision. Secondly, values and goals should be the bedrock of the business.… Read the rest