Leadership Characteristics – What Makes an Effective Leader

There are some specific characteristics that are found inside people who are born that seem like a developed skills and abilities which open themselves in a wise position where they look like a good leader. There are some characteristics that are found in a good leadership skill and these qualities can be a natural part of their personality and daily activities.

First, confidence that must appear from a person like trustness and believing in their own abilities. And also can be said that someone empowers their working for them to make their own decisions. For example, make a decisions following on their own idea like creating something new and with some experience like a student doing their best in their final exam with a lot hopes and also the confidence comes from the parents and teacher who guides and approaches them at all the times.

Second, a good character  plays in an important and vital role in determining the effectiveness of their leadership. Trustworthiness and honesty are the two main important aspects of a leader’s character otherwise there is a slight flaw in leader’s character and it will be lead or caused to the follower, don’t trust he leader. For example, a true leader must always be true and loyal with themselves to what to be done what they have been promise to do and must follow what they have said so that it can be shown as a good example for others in their activities and in future attitude.

Third, a great effective communication is an important and vital leadership of a good leader that should be able to put across what that have to make satisfied the circumstance and how .… Read the rest

What is Social Accounting?

Any business accountant of an enterprise or any organisation can describe the conditions of that organisation. Social accounting is that kind of movement by which everyone can analyze the same thing as like a business accountant. The main aim of social accounting is to produce data, indices and other information to help everyone about an organisation.

Social accounting is also known in various names. These are social and environmental accounting, corporate social reporting, corporate social responsibility reporting, non-financial reporting or sustainability accounting. This is actually a procedure of communicating in which the social and environmental belongings of organisations (NGO, Charities, may be Government agencies etc.) are included. This is a way by which an organisation can express the level to which it meets its societal or ethical goals.

Social accounting is distinct from evaluation in that it is an internally generated process whereby the organisation itself shapes the social accounting process according to its stated objectives. In particular it aims to involve all stakeholders in the process. It measures social and environmental performance in order to achieve improvement as well as to report accurately on what has been done.

There are some key factors in social accounting by which everyone can understand the difference between social accounting and conventional accounting. Main focus of social accounting is mainly on issues which can develop a correlation in between society and organisation. In maximum aspects social accounting is not focusing on financial data but sometimes it needs financial data for making a report. The purpose of social accounting is to be liable to a large number of stakeholders.… Read the rest

Case Study: General Electrics “Imagination At Work” Ad Campaign

Throughout its history General Electric Co. enjoyed the benefits of a consistent marketing message. From the 1930s to the 1950s the company relied on the slogan ‘‘Live better electrically,’’ which was followed by two decades of variations on the word ‘‘progress,’’ such as ‘‘Progress is our most important product.’’ In 1979 GE unveiled ‘‘We bring good things to life,’’ a cornerstone to one of the most successful corporate branding campaigns in history, backed by about $1 billion in advertising. The company also had consistent leadership in the form of John F. ‘‘Jack’’ Welch, who became chairman and CEO in 1981. The charismatic leader sought to build up GE’s status in all of the technology, service, and manufacturing areas that the company participated in. By the time Welch announced that he would retiring in 2001, GE, fast growing and profitable, had a market capitalization of $505 billion, making it second only to Microsoft. Welch’s tenure at the top, however, ended on a sour note when GE failed in its bid to acquire a major rival, Honeywell International.

Welch was succeeded by Immelt, who set out to put his own imprint on GE by, among other things, revamping the company’s marketing. According to Diane Scarponi, writing in the Seattle Times, ‘‘Immelt said shortly after he was appointed in September 2001 that he wanted to rethink the company’s image.’’ Beth Comstock, head of communications at GE, told Scarponi, ‘‘Immelt has really been pushing a technology focus, a reinvigoration of technology at GE around the world.… Read the rest

Guerrilla Marketing – A Case of Non-Traditional Marketing

When some starry-eyed startup or a small company takes on the big budget corporate in the marketing domain with an underground marketing campaign that costs nothing but causes shock-waves for months, its called guerrilla marketing. Guerrilla marketing is a different kind of marketing which does not involve big budget but it is about out of the box thinking; it is about using anything around to market a product, an idea or a social message virtually anything under the sun. It believes in entertaining and engaging the target customer. It does not involve preaching or educating but it is about exciting the viewer to find out a secret or solve a puzzle. Guerrilla campaigns purely depend on creativity, intensive word of mouth campaigns and its oddness like using unconventional locations. Some guerrilla campaigns are so brilliant that it has made bystanders feel lucky to be there to witness them.

AMA defines Guerrilla Marketing as “Unconventional marketing intended to get maximum results from minimal resources”.

The goals of guerrilla marketing are relatively simple: use unconventional tactics to advertise on a very small budget. It is based on the idea that one does not need radio or TV ads to market something. Make a campaign so shocking, funny, unique, outrageous, clever, or creative (even controversial) that people cant stop talking about it thus create intense word of mouth publicity. Guerilla marketing involves approaches like interception in public, giving free products, PR stunts basically any unconventional marketing approach intended to give maximum result from minimum investment. … Read the rest

Case Study: Nissan’s Successful Turnaround Under Carlos Ghosn

Nissan is a famous automobile manufacturing company which was founded in 1933. After the Second World War, Nissan expanded its operations globally. Nissan was very well known for its advanced engineering and technology, plant productivity and quality management. However, during the previous decade, Nissan management has emphasized on short-term market share growth, instead of profitability or long-term strategic success. Nissan’s designs had not reflected customer opinion. In addition, Nissan managers tended to put retained earnings into keiretsu investing (equity of suppliers), rather than reinvesting in new product designs as other competitors did. These inappropriate strategies combining with the Asian crisis influence on a devaluation of the yen led Nissan to the edge of bankruptcy. Nissan was in need of a strategic partner that could lend both financing and new management ideas to foster a turnaround. Furthermore, Nissan sought to expand into other regions where it had less presence. In order to turn around as soon as possible, Nissan found an opportunity and created a strategic alliance with Renault who was also looking for a partner to reduce its dependence on the European market and enhance its global position.

In 1999 Nissan was incurring losses in seven of the prior eight years, which led to the hiring of a new CEO, Carlos Ghosn, being the first non Japanese CEO, had to face a huge culture clash (French-Japanese) so that he could be able to redefine the company’s structure to ultimately enhance its performance in a maximum period of two years. Although he intensively addressed cultural issues, taking under consideration the specifications about Japanese culture norms, he also incurred few risky decisions that could have worked against the process, risking the employee’s engagement process.… Read the rest

Case Study: American Express “Do More” Advertising Campaign

American Express had built its reputation as a prestigious charge card. In 1976 the company began its famed ‘‘Do You Know Me?’’ campaign in which celebrities ranging from dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov to puppeteer Jim Henson appeared in ads that pictured them and an AmEx Green Card bearing their names. In 1987 the ‘‘Portraits’’ campaign followed a similar formula. By aligning the brand with stars, AmEx cultivated the notion that carrying one of its cards was more akin to joining an elite country club than making a financial transaction. As later ads sniffed, ‘‘membership has its privileges.’’ In the 1980s, however, AmEx’s careful positioning began to backfire. According to Brandweek, while AmEx ‘‘clung to its old, elite ways,’’ the credit card industry went through monumental changes. With so many cards vying for consumers’ attention, Visa and MasterCard (specifically, the member banks that comprised the Visa and MasterCard consortia) began to cross-market with various businesses so they could offer incentives to consumers. For instance, by teaming up with airlines, Visa and MasterCard could entice consumers to charge purchases with the promise of frequent-flier miles. Moreover, companies such as AT&T and GM allied themselves with the Visa and MasterCard brands and began to peddle cards that tied in to phone service or car purchases. But while the entire industry became hyper-segmented, AmEx continued to sell itself on its reputation alone and lost market share as a result. Also damaging was Visa’s 1987 launch of an attack campaign that stressed Visa’s global acceptance by featuring countless businesses that declined to take American Express.… Read the rest