In 1987 Eli Lilly and Company won U.S. approval to sell Prozac, the first among a class of drugs called Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) that treated clinical depression by elevating levels of serotonin—a chemical believed crucial to regulating mood—in the brain. Prozac’s effectiveness and lack of side effects compared to existing medications for depression revolutionized not only the way mental illness was treated by psychiatrists but also the way it was perceived by the public. By 1992, when Pfizer and SmithKline Beecham introduced their own SSRIs, Zoloft and Paxil, respectively, depression had lost much of its stigma in the United States. In the following years SSRIs became one of the best-selling prescription drug categories.
For its first several years on the market, Paxil remained in third place among SSRIs, and SmithKline Beecham set its sights on new markets for the drug. In the mid-1990s Paxil won FDA approval for the treatment of anxiety-related conditions like panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Though these markets led to substantial growth for the brand, it was the FDA’s approval of Paxil in 1999 as a treatment for a little-known condition called social anxiety disorder that gave the drug its first significant advantage over competitors. Social anxiety disorder, or debilitating shyness, was a condition that, according to SmithKline Beecham, affected as many as 10 million Americans, and Paxil was the only FDA-approved treatment. SmithKline Beecham was aided in its attempt to reach this untapped market by an easing of FDA regulations in 1997 that governed the advertising of prescription drugs.… Read the rest
Founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, this urban merchant’s bank continued to expand and diversify its services over the next century. The bank changed its name to Citibank, N.A. (National Association), in 1976, following its parent holding company’s change to Citicorp. In 1998 Citicorp and the Travelers Group completed a $76 billion merger to form Citigroup, Inc. Citicorp was at the time the second-largest commercial bank, and Travelers Group was a leading international insurance/investment banking firm. The Citicorp-Travelers merger thus represented a new era of horizontal expansion. Citigroup then began an acquisition spree that included acquiring in 2002 Golden State Bancorp (the parent company of First Nationwide Mortgage and California Federal Bank), a move that added 352 branches and approximately 1.5 million new customers to Citigroup. By then the company was well on its way to having 3,000 bank branches and consumer-finance offices in the United States and Canada, plus an additional 1,500 locations worldwide.
The terrorist strikes of September 11, 2001, initiated changes in American opinions regarding finances. While Americans were left reordering their priorities to allow more time at home with family, Citibank was creating a ‘‘new standard’’ in consumer retail banking. ‘‘In a down economy people want to hear that money isn’t important,’’ said Al Ries, chairman of Ries & Ries, a marketing consultancy in Atlanta, Georgia. Though the market research for the ‘‘Live Richly’’ campaign had been completed prior to 9/11, Citibank, with its simple and reassuring ads, benefited from consumers fears of corporate layoffs and the stock-market instabilities of a down economy.… Read the rest
Bob Parsons sold his first successful company, Parsons Technology, in 1994, and in 1997 he used the proceeds to start a new company, Jomax Technologies. Unsatisfied with the Jomax name, Parsons and his staff came up with the more arresting moniker Go Daddy. As Parsons told Wall Street Transcripts, the name worked ‘‘because the domain name GoDaddy.com was available, but we also noticed that when people hear that name, two things happen. First, they smile. Second, they remember it.’’ After an unsuccessful attempt to establish the company as a source for website-building software, Parsons reinvented Go Daddy as a registrar of Internet domain names, buying unused website names and then reselling them to individuals and businesses in need of an online presence. Go Daddy also offered auxiliary services and products enabling customers to launch their sites after the domain-name purchase, including (as in the company’s early days) software for building sites. Domain-name registration, however, was a burgeoning industry as America became increasingly wired and more and more businesses found it essential to establish a Web presence. By 2004 Go Daddy had sold nearly seven million domain names and was the world’s leading registrar of domain names. Up to that point the company had done little marketing, relying primarily on word-of-mouth buzz and low prices; Go Daddy offered domain names for $8.95, compared with fees of $35 at the industry’s high end.
In late 2004 Go Daddy enlisted New York agency the Ad Store for its first sustained offline advertising campaign. The company announced that the campaign would make its TV debut during the 2005 Super Bowl, a move that drew widespread criticism, partly because of the recent history of Super Bowl advertising undertaken by dot-com companies.… Read the rest
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft) is one of the world’s leading luxury carmakers. Founded and based in the Germany, BMW group employed over 100,000 people, making and distributing a series of successful, premium-priced passenger cars and motorcycles. In addition to its manufacturing operations, BMW also provides financial services to support its worldwide sales and distribution of cars and motorcycles.
BMW was initially established to build aero engines during the First World War. By 1945, company was still country’s leading aero engine manufacturer. But by 1928, BMW has also started making cars, when it got the license. It was later when BMW became one the biggest automobiles maker in Germany. But after the Second World War, company was laid into ruins. The demand for aero engines subsequently disappeared. Its factories and other capital equipment, which were located in area now controlled by Soviets, were under serious threat. At this point of time company was not sure about its future and started concentrating on automobiles production. But in 1959, company went into financial turmoil, when it faced bankruptcy. In this hard time, company found a savior in the face of Herbert Quandt, who emerged as a powerful share holder by taking over the 50% share of the company. In BMW group’s history the turning point was 1961, when it launched BMW 1500, which soon got BMW brand, the reputation of an excellent engineering company. Now a day, BMW enjoys the ownership of three quality brands, BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce motor cars.
In 2000 BMW posted total sales of $33 billion, a slight decrease from its 1999 earnings of $34 billion.… Read the rest
Unilevers Dove brand was launched in the market as a cleansing bar soap in 1957. The soap was based non-irritating cleaner and moisturizing component. By 1970s, Unilever had enhanced the soap into a beauty bar, which was milder and promised women of moisturized skins. The popularity of the soap at this time soared, and Unilever started expansion into the global market and by 1996, the brand was selling in over 80 countries. Between 1995 and 2001, Unilever expanded the range of products under the dove brand to include moisturizers, face creams, deodorants, shower gel, shampoos, conditioners, among other wide range of beauty and care products.
The key features and attributes of the brand such as its soft colors focused on promoting it as a rejuvenating, calming and exfoliating product brand with milder effects on the skin and high performance moisturizing abilities for dry skins. As the Dove brand mainly targeted women, its dove logo and tagline represent gentleness and softness at a higher sophistication in performance.
The Campaign’s Inspiration
In 2004, the Dove Brand commissioned a report “The Real Truth About Beauty: A Global Report – Findings of the Global Study on Women, Beauty and Well-Being.” It is rooted in the increasing concern that representations of female beauty in popular culture fed a definition of beauty that was both inauthentic and unattainable. The Dove Brand theorized, resultantly that women are in this way prevented from appreciating beauty in themselves. Furthermore, in a culture women are so highly valued on their physical appearance, these standards have the potential to negatively impact women’s self-esteem, happiness, and overall well-being.… Read the rest
In 1924 Collet Everman Woolman and an associate started the Huff Daland Dusters crop dusting operation, this was the first agricultural airplane made for the purpose of crop dusting for getting rid of boll weevils and insects. The dusting speed was 80-85 mph and the advantage it had was low speed flying, heavy payload capacity and low maintenance cost. This creation was the roots of Delta Air Lines. In 1928 the crop dusting operation broke away from the parent company and became Delta Air Service. The company began getting contracts in delivering airmail and then in 1929 Delta began transporting passengers flying them to Dallas, Jackson and Mississippi. Later other routes were added to Atlanta and Charleston. Delta’s success was growing and began getting popular when the U.S. government awarded it an airmail contract in 1930. It remained in business during a temporary but costly suspension in the airmail contract system in 1934. But by 1941 the company became incorporated and was called Delta Air Corporation and was awarded three more airmail contracts. By World War II Delta is now under the War Department contract and began to devote its time to the troops transporting them. In 1945 Delta returned to normal service and grew more competitive than ever in the airline industry.
On May 1, 1953, Delta merged with Chicago and Southern Airlines and continued to grow as a major regional trunk carrier through the 1960’s. In the summer of 1967 Delta merged with Delaware Airlines and officially was named Delta Air Lines.… Read the rest