Euro Notes are like promissory notes issued by companies for obtaining short term funds. They emerged in early 1980s with growing securitization in the international financial market. They are denominated in any currency other than the currency of the country where they are issued. They represent low cost funding route. Documentation facilities are the minimum. They can be easily tailored to suit the requirements of different kinds of borrowers. Investors too prefer them in view of short maturity.
When the issuer plans to issue Euro notes, it hires the services of facility agents or the lead arranger. On the advice of the lead arranger, it issues the notes, gets them underwritten and sells them through the placement agents. After the selling period is over the underwriter buys the unsold issues.
The Euro notes carry three main cost components: Underwriting fee; One time management fee for structuring, pricing and documentation; and Margin on the notes themselves. The margin is either in the form of spread above/below LIBOR or built into the note price itself.… Read More »
International bonds are a debt instrument. They are issued by international agencies, governments and companies for borrowing foreign currency for a specified period of time. The issuer pays interest to the creditor and makes repayment of capital. There are different types of such bonds. The procedure of issue is very specific. All these need some explanation here.
Types of International Bonds
1. Foreign Bonds and Euro Bonds
International bonds are classified as foreign bonds and Euro bonds. There is a difference between the two, primarily on four counts. First, in the case of foreign bond, the issuer selects a foreign financial market where the bonds are issued in the currency of that very country. If an Indian company issues bond in New York and the bond is denominated in a currency other than the currency of the country where the bonds are issued. If the Indian company’s bond is denominated in US dollar, the bonds will be used in any country other than the USA. Then only it will be called Euro bond. Secondly, foreign bonds are underwritten normally by the underwriters of the country where they are issued.… Read More »
A money market is a market for instruments and a means of lending (or investing) and borrowing funds for relatively short periods, typically regards as from one day to one year. Such means and instruments include short term bank loans. Treasury bills, bank certificates of deposit, commercial paper, banker’s acceptances and repurchase agreements and other short term asset backed claims.
As a key elements of the financial system of a country, the money market plays a crucial economic role that if reconciling the cash needs of so called deficit units (such as farmers needing to borrow in anticipation of their later harvest revenues), with the investment needs of surplus units (such as insurance companies wanting to invest cash productively prior to making long term investment choices). Holding or borrowing liquid claims is more productive than holding cash balances. A smoothly functioning money market can perform these functions very efficiently if borrowing lending spreads (or bid offers spreads for traded instruments) are small (operational efficiency), and if funds are lent to those who can make the most productive use of them (allocation efficiency).… Read More »
Euro Markets are unregulated Money and Capital markets. These markets are spread over Europe, Middle East and Asia. Short-term Euro markets are called as “Euro- currency Markets”. Any currency held outside to home country is referred to as Euro-currency. For example when a Dollar is held as a deposit outside the U.S. is referred to as Euro-Dollar, Similarly a deposit in Marks, outside Germany is called as a Euro-Mark deposit.
The Dollar was and still is widely used to settle the international payments. Although there is an increase in European Deposits, denominated in Euro, Pound sterling, Yen etc., by far the U.S. Dollar still remains the most popular Euro-currency. The preference for Dollars can be attributed to the relative political stability and the absence of severe restrictions in the U.S. It thus facilitates high liquidity to Dollar–denominated deposits.
There are many reasons which have helped to popularize Euro Dollar deposits. Some of these are discussed in detail here.
Americans could prefer to hold their Dollars outside the U.S.… Read More »
If the monetary authority holds sufficient gold to convert all circulating money, then this is known as a 100% reserve gold standard, or a full gold standard. Some believe there is no other form of gold standard, since on any “partial” gold standard the value of circulating representative paper in a free economy will always reflect the faith that the market has in that note being redeemable for gold. Others, such as some modern advocates of supply-side economics contest that so long as gold is the accepted unit of account then it is a true gold standard. In an internal gold-standard system, gold coins circulate as legal tender or paper money is freely convertible into gold at a fixed price.
In an international gold-standard system, which may exist in the absence of any internal gold standard, gold or a currency that is convertible into gold at a fixed price is used as a means of making international payments. Under such a system, when exchange rates rise above or fall below the fixed mint rate by more than the cost of shipping gold from one country to another, large inflows or outflows occur until the rates return to the official level.… Read More »
The euro is the result of the most significant monetary reform in Europe since the Roman Empire. Although the euro can be seen simply as a mechanism for perfecting the Single European Market, facilitating free trade among the members of the Euro-zone, it is also regarded by its founders as a key part of the project of European political integration.
The euro is administered by the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), composed of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Euro-zone central banks operating in member states. The ECB (headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany) has sole authority to set monetary policy; the other members of the ESCB participate in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins, and the operation of the Euro-zone payment system.
The introduction of a single currency for many separate countries presents a number of advantages and disadvantages for the participating nations.
1. Removal of Exchange Rate Risk
One of the most important benefits of the euro will be lowered exchange rate risks, which will make it easier to invest across borders.… Read More »