An accounting framework is a coherent system of inter-related objectives and fundamentals that should lead to consistent standards that prescribe the nature, function and limits of financial accounting and financial statements. The main reason for developing a conceptual framework are that gives a framework for setting accounting standards, a basis for resolving accounting disputes and fundamental principles which then do not have to be repeated in accounting standards. Furthermore, Conceptual Framework can be categorized in terms of the distinctive function of management accounting within the management process in organizations. Moreover, the way in which the utility of the outcomes of the management accounting process can be tested.… Read the rest
Creative accounting is accounting practice that falls outside the regulation and give benefit to certain people. It can be described as a practice with a clear aim to interrupt the financial reporting process which affects reported income to make it looked normal and provides no true economic advantages to relevant parties like shareholders. Concisely, creative accounting is the transformation of financial accounting figures from what they actually are to what users’ desire by taking advantage of the accounting policies which is permitted by accounting standards.
Creative accounting is a practice that potentially being undertaken as a result from some individual care more on their own interest and indirectly causes issues arise in ethical dimension of creative accounting.… Read the rest
In an organization when a manager is responsible for planning incomes and expenses for the a future period, they can plan income very low and expenses very high so that this amounts gets approved by senior management. The manager basically does this thing to be sure of meeting the budget with a very low income goal, the manager should be able to achieve it and go over it. With a very high expense budget the manager should be able to easily keep actual expenses within the Budget. If this happens the managers performance in the coming year will look very good, as it doesn’t really give management any idea of what the coming year will actually look like because it’s not realistic.… Read the rest
The main objective of financial reporting is to provide financial information to current capital provides to make decisions. This information might also be useful to users who are not capital providers. The general purpose financial reporting develops superior reporting standards to help in the efficient functioning of economies and the efficient allocation of resources in capital markets. General purpose financial reporting focuses on an extensive range of users’ needs that lack the ability to obtain financial information needed from the entity. It should be broad enough to comprehend information for the various users. Therefore, the financial report is where they depend on to acquire information.… Read the rest
Many authors have put together different definitions for accounting harmonization in various ways. It would seem not an easy word to define, as neither the European Commission nor other organs of the commission have explicitly defined the concept of accounting harmonization. Some have even complicated the whole concept, by attempting to substitute harmonization with standardization, as if to mean that the process is the same, rather than making it more compatible. In practice, harmonization of accounting standards tends to mean the process of increasing the compatibility of accounting practices by setting bounds for the degree of variations. This can be accepted to be the most suitable definition of the concept.… Read the rest
In last many years, few management accounting innovations has been developed. Managers have to make decision on a daily basis as well make decisions regarding the future and how to survive and grow in an energetic market place with ever growing uncertain circumstances. Traditional and modern management accounting system give relevant information to all levels of management, financial and other information to make decisions about planning, control of operations and identifying opportunities to add value.
The modern management accounting practices are typically different from that of traditional management accounting as they enable managers to make sound decisions to minimize cost as well in the same time add value to the products and services by improving the quality of products, which is required by the customers, and reduce waste.… Read the rest