Experimental Research Design

Experimental research design, which can otherwise be called hypothesis-testing research design, were originally made by R.A. Fisher in agricultural research in England. Experimental research design is generally used in experimental studies where hypotheses are tested. Experimental research design is now used in almost all the areas of scientific studies. The principles of experimental research design which Fisher prescribed are, viz.: (a) the principle of replication, (b) principle of randomization, and (c) the principle of local control. The principle of replication suggests that the experiment must be repeated also that the treatment is applied in many experimental units. This increases the statistical accuracy of the experiments. The principle of randomization indicating that the variations resulted by extraneous factors can be brought under “chance”. The principle of local control indicates that the extraneous factor is allowed to vary deliberately over a wide range so that the variability it causes can be measuredContinue reading

Simple Random Sampling in Research

In probability sampling, each element of the population has a known non-zero chance of being selected for the sample. Among the probability sampling methods, simple random sampling is simplest as its name indicate and it underlies many of the more complex methods. In a simple random sample of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability. Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of selection: the frame is not subdivided or partitioned. Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair (and similarly for triples, and so on). This minimises bias and simplifies analysis of results. In particular, the variance between individual results within the sample is a good indicator of variance in the overall population, which makes it relatively easy to estimate the accuracy of results. However, simple random sampling can beContinue reading

Classification and Tabulation of Data in Research

Classification is the way of arranging the data in different classes in order to give a definite form and a coherent structure to the data collected, facilitating their use in the most systematic and effective manner. It is the process of grouping the statistical data under various understandable homogeneous groups for the purpose of convenient interpretation. A uniformity of attributes is the basis criterion for classification; and the grouping of data is made according to similarity. Classification becomes necessary when there is diversity in the data collected for meaningful presentation and analysis. However, in respect of homogeneous presentation of data, classification may be unnecessary. Objectives of classification of data: To group heterogeneous data under the homogeneous group of common characteristics; To facility similarity of various group; To facilitate effective comparison; To present complex, haphazard and scattered dates in a concise, logical, homogeneous, and intelligible form; To maintain clarity and simplicityContinue reading

Stratified Random Sampling in Research

In the example of choosing a simple random sample of twenty employees out of a thousand in a factory, suppose they include 100 supervise and 900 workers. A simple random sample comes by mere chance and it possible that among the twenty chosen, all may be supervisors or none may be. If the researcher feels that he should study both the subgroups, it would be me sensible to take a random sample from each subgroup (stratum) after separate lists for the two strata. Such sampling is called stratified random sampling. Stratification may be done in business research on differ characteristics like sex, age (e.g. young, middle-aged, old), race, religion, occupation, education, residential area (e.g., rural, urban) ownership of (e.g., public sector, private sector), size of business or income. The stratification may be proportionate or disproportionate. In the sampling of twenty employees from a factory described above, if 2 supervisorsContinue reading

Significance and Problems of Social Research

Significance of Social Research Within the last 20 to 25 years, courses in methods of social research have come to occupy an increasingly important role in sociological curricula. It likely that at present every major university offers such courses. This is because growing significance of social research and also growing job opportunities in this field. The market analysis, the public opinion expert, the investigator of communication and propaganda all are growing facts for governmental and business needs. Knowledge of social research is useful for interpreting and weighing such reports. In the present age, social science are accruing a scientific method of study for this method, research is an important factor. In the last two or three decades, social research has become an important subject of the curriculum of Sociology. In fact almost all the universities, where sociology is taught, social research is a part of the curriculum of the sociology.Continue reading

Contents and Layout of Research Report

Contents of Research Report The researcher must keep in mind that his research report must contain following aspects: Purpose of study Significance of his study or statement of the problem Review of literature Methodology Interpretation of data Conclusions and suggestions Bibliography Appendices These can be discussed in detail as under: (1) Purpose of study: Research is one direction oriented study. He should discuss the problem of his study. He must give background of the problem. He must lay down his hypothesis of the study. Hypothesis is the statement indicating the nature of the problem. He should be able to collect data, analyze it and prove the hypothesis. The importance of the problem for the advancement of knowledge or removed of some evil may also be explained. He must use review of literature or the data from secondary source for explaining the statement of the problems. (2) Significance of study: ResearchContinue reading