Role of Financial Statements Analysis in Making Investment Decisions

One of the most important long-term decisions for any business is investment with the aim of making gains in the future. Investment decisions are concerned with the use of funds including buying, holding or selling and each decision could be vital to a firm. A careless decision may result in a long-term loss or even worse, bankruptcy. Therefore, an in-depth understanding and analysis is necessary for a high quality investment decision process. This is also even more critical to investors who invest in stock of company or shareholders. Financial statement analysis is critical in making effective stock investment decisions. By study the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and statement of owners’ equity separately and combined, an analyst might have a good sense of a company’s overall financial picture; therefore, the investment decisions are likely to be reasonable and profitable. Financial Statements Analysis In order to understand the analysisContinue reading

Fama and French Three Factor Model

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is the backbone of modern portfolio theory. According to CAPM, the expected return on stock is a function of its relationship with the market portfolio defined by its beta. However, Eugene Fama and Kenneth French (1992) brought together two more factors and found that stock return is based on a combination of not just market beta but also firm size and value. They came up with a new model known as Three Factor Model as an alternative to CAPM. What is Fama and French Three Factor Model? Fama and French three factor model expands on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) by adding size and value factors in addition to the market risk factor in CAPM. This model considers the fact that value and small cap stocks out-perform markets on a regular basis. Fama and French attempted to approach and measure equity returns in aContinue reading

Benefits of Securitization

Securitization, also known as asset-backed securitization or structured financing, has been defined as a financing instrument whereby a company transfers rights in current or future receivables or other financial assets to an entity that serves as a “special purpose vehicle” (SPV), which in turn issues securities to capital market investors and uses the proceeds from the issue to pay for the financial assets. The source of the receivables could be any right of payment or asset that generates an income with a stable cash flow. The existing or future receivables could be the income generated, among others things by residential or commercial loans, credit card receivables, automobile loans, student loans, royalties on intellectual property, tax receivables or any other income source that is regular and predictable. Read More: The Concept of Securitization Securitization can also be considered a form of arbitrage between a less-efficient traditional debt market and a more-efficientContinue reading

What is Trading on Equity?

The phrase trading on equity is a financial jargon which indicates the utilization of non-equity sources of funds in the capital structure of an enterprise. At a high debt-equity ratio, a firm may not be able to borrow funds at a cheaper rate of interest it may not able to borrow funds at all. This is so because creditors lose confidence in the company which has a high debt-equity ratio. How can creditors have confidence in the company which has only creditors and no equity stockholders? The company will, therefore, have to strive hard to regain a reasonable debt-equity ratio so that the expectations of the market may be satisfied. In fact, equity financing by way of a public sale of stock offers real value of a firm. Traditionally, it has served as a spearhead for expansion of resources and productive capacity involving risk. Merwin Waterman states that the termContinue reading

Earnings Management – Meaning and Mechanism

The relationship between managers and shareholders in the business world cannot be disputable. This relationship is interpreted under Agency Theory. They are very dependent each other, even somehow there exist conflict of interest among these two parties. In example the shareholders put on trust to agency by contributing huge amount of money in terms of paid up capital, so that agency can generate business and obtain profit and increase the firm’s value as principles return. Meanwhile agency (managers) is dependent to the principles for remunerations and bonuses as compensation. Because of the great pressure from principles (shareholders) towards the high performance of firms values, so agency commonly practice earnings management in order to be sustained in market place. Earnings management may involve manipulation of accounting record, intentional omission or intentional misapplication of accounting o accounting principles. Earnings management is defined as the intentional misstatement of earnings leading to bottom lineContinue reading

Difference Between Job Costing and Process Costing

The main objective of manufacturing firms is to make profit. The profit on each product sold is the difference between the selling price of the product and the total cost of making the product. Cost therefore plays an important role in the product design process. To calculate the cost that incurred on the product we use different Costing Techniques. Costing is not an easy task because in the process of manufacturing a product many indirect materials and labor are used. To identify these costs we use different costing techniques. Here we are going to discuss two methods of costing; Job Costing and Process Costing. Job Costing Job Costing is to calculate the costs involved of a business in manufacturing goods. These costs are recorded in ledger accounts throughout the year and are then shown in the final trial balance before the preparing of the manufacturing statement. In a job costingContinue reading