The idea of Nike began way back in the 1950s. A track coach by the name of Bill Bowerman was at the University of Oregon training his team. Bill was always looking for a competitive edge for his runners, like most of us today look for any advantage we can get. Bill said he tried using different shoes for his runners as well as trying other things to try and make his athletes better. Bill tried to contact the shoes manufactures in attempt to try out his ideas for running shoes. This however failed. In 1955 a track runner by the name of Phil Knight enrolled at Oregon. Phil was on the track team under Bill. Phil graduated from Oregon and acquired his MBA from Stanford University. Phil went on to write a paper that talked about how quality shoes could be made over in Japan and they would be cheaper. Phil called a company in Japan and became a distributor of Tiger shoes in the United States of America. Phil sent some pairs of shoes to his old track coach trying to get Bill to buy the shoes. Instead of buying these shoes Bill offered Phil a partnership to create better running shoes. In 1964 Bill and Phil shook hands and formed Blue Ribbon Sports. The companies’ first move was to order three hundred pairs of shoes from the company in Japan. While Bill examined these shoes and tried to make them better Phil was out selling the shoes.… Read the rest
When we consider International Advertising from the advertiser’s point of view, according to them the primary objective of advertisement is that the product or services which they are offering should be sold in the market. And in achieving the main objective of selling the product or services there are other profound consequences. Advertising puts an influence which is both persuasive and pervasive in nature. Through the selective reinforcement of certain language and values, and social goal, it acts as important force attitudes that underlie behavior not only in the market place, but also in all aspects of life. In an international marketing concern, advertising has an important social influence in a number of ways: many of the international advertising are designed to promote and introduce new products from one market to another. Often this results in sudden change in life-styles, behavior patterns of a society, stimulating for example the adoption of fast food, casual attire or hygiene and beauty products. International advertising encourages desire for products from other countries; it creates expectations about “the good life”, and establishes new areas of consumption. Advertising is thus a potent force for change, while selectively reinforcing life-styles, certain values and role models.
We can see the examples of brands like Levi’s, Adidas, Reebok, Nike, Marlboro and McDonalds which are familiar in almost every corner of the world. These brands have become an object of desire by the teen and young adults throughout the world. Even the scenes and images which have been shown in the international advertising are either in western in origin or reflect western consumption behavior and values.… Read the rest
International marketing can be a tricky business. With the increase in global trade, international companies cannot afford to make costly advertising mistakes if they want to be competitive and profitable. Understanding the language and culture of target markets in foreign countries is one of the keys to successful international advertising. Too many companies, however, have jumped into foreign markets with embarrassing results. Out of their blunders, a whole new industry of translation services has emerged.Faulty Translations
The value of understanding the language of a country cannot he overestimated. Translation mistakes are at the heart of many blunders in international advertising. Since a language is more than the sum of its words, a literal, word-by-word dictionary translation seldom works. The following examples prove this point. Otis Engineering Company once displayed a poster at a trade show in Moscow that turned heads. Due to a poor translation of its message, the sign boasted that the firm’s equipment was great for improving a person’s sex life. The Parker Pen Company suffered an embarrassing moment when it realized that a faulty translation of one of its ads into Spanish resulted in a promise to “help prevent unwanted pregnancies”.
Automobile manufacturers in the United States have made several notorious advertising mistakes that have been well publicized. General Motors learned a costly lesson when it introduced its Chevrolet Nova to the Puerto Rican market. Although “nova” means “star” in Spanish, when it is spoken, it sounds like “no va” which means it doesn’t go. Few people wanted to buy a car with that meaning.… Read the rest
International Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually in more than one country performed by an identified sponsor. Marketers see advertising as part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Advertising is a cogent communication attempt to change or reinforce ones’ prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior.
It can be viewed as a communication process that takes place in multiple cultures that differ in terms of values, communication styles, and consumption patterns. It is also a business activity involving advertisers and the advertising agencies that create ads and buy media in different countries. The sum total of these activities constitutes a worldwide industry that is growing in importance. International advertising is also a major force that both reflects social values, and propagates certain values worldwide.
International advertising involves recognizing that people all over the world have different needs. Companies like Gillette, Coca-Cola, BIC, and Cadbury Schweppes have brands that are recognized across the globe. While many of the products that these businesses sell are targeted at a global audience using a consistent marketing mix, it is also necessary to understand the regional differences, hence it is important to understand the importance of international marketing. Organizations must accept that differences in values, customs, languages and currencies will mean that some products will only suit certain countries and that as well as there being global markets e.g. for BIC and Gillette razors, and for Coca-Cola drinks, there are important regional differences for example advertising in China and India need to focus on local languages.… Read the rest
Propaganda is a “systematic, widespread dissemination or promotion of particular ideas, doctrines, practices, etc. Some use it to cause or to damage an opposing one.” While it is true that many of the techniques associated with propaganda are also used in the practice of advertising or public relations, the term propaganda is usually applied to efforts to promote a particular political viewpoint. Additionally, propaganda can be used to promote specific religious views. Furthermore, companies use propaganda to persuade consumers into buying their product, and, sadly, misinformation is found all around people in magazines, on television, on billboards, and in movies. Subconsciously, people let the use of propaganda influence their decision to purchase items that they often would not buy.
Advertisers lean heavily on propaganda to sell products, whether the “products” are a brand of toothpaste, a candidate for office, or a particular political viewpoint. Although propaganda may seem relevant only in the political arena, the concept can be applied fruitfully to the way products and ideas are sold in advertising. All around us, we can see a lot of propaganda ads on television, magazine, newspaper, and etc. Propaganda is a systematic effort to influence people’s opinions, to win them over to a certain view or side. People have been influenced by the propaganda advertisements. Some psychologists’ point of view considers that propaganda is in fact changing our mind and heart, because they make our spirits full of material desires. For instance, sometimes we purchase something that we don’t even need because of our desire.… Read the rest
Most brands in the same category deliver more or less the same functional benefits and answer the same needs of the consumers. With so many products on the market having the same function, the only way to position a product, service, or company differently from anything else in the same category is through creative development in advertising.
Today traditional advertising is losing its sheen. The biggest problem with traditional media is that consumers today have lots of choice for ad avoidance. The fragmentation is very high and there is very less scope of customized message for all. The Indian consumer has changed if we focus on this issue there is a lot more on the menu to choose from. Now the message unlike the past is no longer a one way process. But public opinion is far more mobilized, they have immediate platform for expression.
The expert believes that the creativity in advertising could never exist in isolation without a context. The success of final product completely depends on empathy and the relevance of message it intends to deliver. The trigger for ideas and insights must necessarily come from the environment.
The new millennium is just decade old, advertising, which is about creating demand, also has undergone a complete transformation. Many things have changed and many things have stayed exactly the same in this industry. The media agencies have witnessed the tremendous growth in skills set. If one critically analyze, “advertising reflects the mood of the times. The simplistic inform-persuade-sell mode worked beautifully for a long time but once communication became sophisticated, technology entered, there was a paradigm shift.… Read the rest