Agency theory refers to a contract whereby principals engage with agents to perform some act on their behalf. The act involved giving power to an agent for some decision-making. Everyone work on the feet of benefit that can be gained for oneself. That’s why it is strongly agreed that the agent, as a utility maximizer will not act in the best interest of the principal. Therefore, agents may cheat if they were not monitored by the principal, and the principal, on the other hand, must bear agency costs to avoid suffering loss. These agency costs include monitoring costs of an agent, bonding costs whereby the agent will try to show that they are not self-serving, and residual losses that are too costly to monitor.… Read the rest
In old times, the traditional approach of companies was to maximize the owner’s profit. Modern approach puts more emphasis on Shareholder Wealth Maximization rather than owner profit maximization. This includes increasing the earnings per share (EPS) of every shareholder so that their net worth is maximized. Wealth increase is equal to what gross present worth in needed for raising profits in the future. This value needs to be discounted as per the time frame to found out the annualized rate of return for the shareholder. In Shareholder Wealth Maximization, it places priority before any other objective for the organization. Any action which has positive effective on Shareholder Wealth Maximization needs to be given priority.… Read the rest
The relationship between managers and shareholders in the business world cannot be disputable. This relationship is interpreted under Agency Theory. They are very dependent each other, even somehow there exist conflict of interest among these two parties. In example the shareholders put on trust to agency by contributing huge amount of money in terms of paid up capital, so that agency can generate business and obtain profit and increase the firm’s value as principles return. Meanwhile agency (managers) is dependent to the principles for remunerations and bonuses as compensation. Because of the great pressure from principles (shareholders) towards the high performance of firms values, so agency commonly practice earnings management in order to be sustained in market place.… Read the rest
Accounting theory is a set of basic assumptions, definitions, principles, and concepts surrounding the accounting rule. It includes the reporting of accounting and financial information to relevant or interested parties. There are several approaches that are used in the development of accounting theory. The two main ones are normative theory approach and the positive theory approach.
Normative theory approach is a theory that is not based on observation. It is based on how things in the accounting process should be done. This approach comprises of different approaches to have a single but effective accounting approach. This kind of approach uses a formula to come up with an income based on value, not costs.… Read the rest
The accounting cycle is a sequence of steps starting with recording transactions and takes it to the preparation of financial statements. The main purpose of recording transactions and keeping track of expenses and revenues. The accounting cycle is a set of steps that are repeated in the same order every period. The highest of these steps is the preparation of financial statements. Some companies prepare financial statements every three months while some complete twelve months.10 Steps of Accounting Cycle Explained
- The first step is to analyze and record transactions in the journal. This step is where information must be carefully read to determine if a transaction is an asset, liability, common stock, retained earnings, revenue, dividend, or expense.
The statement of cash flows is one of three very important financial reports that managers and investors look at when analyzing a company’s past or present financial status. The balance sheet and the income statement are the other two reports. All of these reports are very important in running a successful business, but the statement of cash flows is the most important. It is like the blood of a company since it would not survive successfully without it. Cash on hand can actually be much more important than income, profits, assets, and liabilities put together, especially in the early stages of any company.… Read the rest