Stakeholder Capitalism Model

Stakeholder capitalism model says that company should make decisions by taking into account the interests of all the stakeholders in the firm. Stakeholders include all individuals or groups who can significantly affect the welfare of the firm in the aspects of not only the financial claimants, but also employees, management, customers, local community, supply chain members, local or national government and creditors. One of the important variables in this model is considering all stakeholders’ interest as they are people who support and sustain the company. In the stakeholder capitalism model, it is argued that firms should pay attention to all their supporters that can affect the firm. Managers and boards of directors of company have vital roles on making decisions that suit multiple competing and inconsistent constituent interests. However, there are different demands and interests from stakeholders. Customers want low prices, high quality, expensive service and so on. Employees wantContinue reading

Types of Dividend Policies

The size and frequency of dividend payments are critical issues in company policy. Dividend policy affects the financial structure, the flow of funds, corporate liquidity, stock prices, and the morale of stockholders. The finance manager plays an important role in the dividend policy. The objective of dividend policy is to maximize shareholder’s return so that the value of his investment is maximized. Shareholders’ return consists of two components: dividends and capital gains. Dividend policies has a direct impact on these components; A Low payout ratio may produce higher share price because it accelerates earnings growth. Investors of growth companies will realize their return mostly in the form of capital gains. Dividend yield – dividend per share divided by the market price per share will be low for such companies. The impact of dividend policy on future capital gains is, however, complex. Capital gains occur in distant future, and therefore, areContinue reading

Structuring Phase of the Acquisition Process

Once the target firm has been identified and valued, the acquisition moves forward into the structuring phase. There are three interrelated steps in this phase. The first is the decision on how much to pay for the target firm, synergy and control built into the valuation. The second is the determination of how to pay for the deal, i.e., whether to use stock, cash or some combination of the two, and whether to borrow any of the funds needed. The final step is the choice of the accounting treatment of the deal because it can affect both taxes paid by stockholders in the target firm and how the purchase is accounted for in the acquiring firm’s income statement and balance sheets. Deciding on an Acquisition Price The value determined in consideration of synergy and control represents a ceiling on the price that the acquirer can pay on the acquisition ratherContinue reading

Budgetary Slack – Definition, Causes and Prevention Methods

Meaning and Definition of Budgetary Slack In an organization when a manager is responsible for planning incomes and expenses for the a future period, they can plan income very low and expenses very high so that this amounts gets approved by senior management. The manager basically does this thing to be sure of meeting the budget with a very low income goal, the manager should be able to achieve it and go over it. With a very high expense budget the manager should be able to easily keep actual expenses within the Budget. If this happens the managers performance in the coming year will look very good, as it doesn’t really give management any idea of what the coming year will actually look like because it’s not realistic. And it doesn’t show the actual evaluation of the manager’s performance. So this is known as the Budgetary Slack. In other words,Continue reading

Fama and French Three Factor Model

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is the backbone of modern portfolio theory. According to CAPM, the expected return on stock is a function of its relationship with the market portfolio defined by its beta. However, Eugene Fama and Kenneth French (1992) brought together two more factors and found that stock return is based on a combination of not just market beta but also firm size and value. They came up with a new model known as Three Factor Model as an alternative to CAPM. What is Fama and French Three Factor Model? Fama and French three factor model expands on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) by adding size and value factors in addition to the market risk factor in CAPM. This model considers the fact that value and small cap stocks out-perform markets on a regular basis. Fama and French attempted to approach and measure equity returns in aContinue reading

Benefits of Securitization

Securitization, also known as asset-backed securitization or structured financing, has been defined as a financing instrument whereby a company transfers rights in current or future receivables or other financial assets to an entity that serves as a “special purpose vehicle” (SPV), which in turn issues securities to capital market investors and uses the proceeds from the issue to pay for the financial assets. The source of the receivables could be any right of payment or asset that generates an income with a stable cash flow. The existing or future receivables could be the income generated, among others things by residential or commercial loans, credit card receivables, automobile loans, student loans, royalties on intellectual property, tax receivables or any other income source that is regular and predictable. Read More: The Concept of Securitization Securitization can also be considered a form of arbitrage between a less-efficient traditional debt market and a more-efficientContinue reading