Analytical Approaches to Cultural Factors

The reason cultural factors are a challenge to global marketers is that they are hidden from view. Because culture is learned behavior passed on from generation to generation, it is difficult for the inexperienced or untrained outsider to fathom. Becoming a global manager means learning how to let go of cultural assumptions. Failure to do so will hinder accurate understanding of the meaning and significance of the statements and behaviors of business associates from a different culture. For example, a person from a culture that encourages responsibility and initiative could experience misunderstandings with a client or boss from a culture that encourages bosses to remain in personal control of all activities. Such a boss would expect to be kept advised of a subordinate’s actions; the subordinate might be taking initiative on the mistaken assumption that the boss would appreciate a willingness to assume responsibility. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheContinue reading

Workforce Diversity Management in the Age of Globalization

Within each and every organization, the composition of workforce diversity is being integrated into its human resource management (HRM). In this new era, the world is increasingly globalizing and since the advent of information technology, the borders of the world are drawn so closely than ever before. Theories of diversity management have been developed by business professionals and scholars, citing that a heterogeneous organization could create better HRM practices to maximize the benefits from a diverse workforce as well as improving their competitive advantages. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs will help to understand how employees’ basic need affects the HRM; and how workforce diversity could contribute to achieving HRM’s strategic objectives. Diversity awareness allows for a better understanding of inclusive consumers’ needs, and provides access to better labor pools. Hence, an organization must be able to utilize the available skills from the workforce if it is to maintain competitive advantage andContinue reading

Benefits of Performance Appraisal

Perhaps the most significant benefit of performance appraisal is that, in the rush and bustle of daily working life, it offers a rare chance for a supervisor and subordinate to have “time out” for a one-on-one discussion of important work issues that might not otherwise be addresses. Performance Appraisal offers a valuable opportunity to focus on work activities and goals, to identify and correct existing problems, and to encourage better future performance. Thus the performance of the whole organization is enhanced. For many employees, an “official” appraisal interview may be the only time they get to have exclusive, uninterrupted access to their supervisor. Said one employee of a large organization after his first formal performance appraisal, “In twenty years of work, that’s the first time anyone has ever bothered to sit down and tell me how I’m doing.” The value of this intense and purposeful interaction between a supervisors andContinue reading

“Job Enrichment is Just a Fancy Name for Employee Exploitation”- Discussion

Job enrichment is operationalised with job descriptions and job specifications. Badly written job descriptions and job specifications restrict management’s freedom to make changes in job tasks, duties and responsibilities; and assign work to employees. Claims of employee exploitation will usually come from trade unions. To avoid industrial disputes with trade unions, it is critical that job descriptions and job specifications be clear, concise and understandable. This is particularly so with jobs that have A,B,C, classifications. Such jobs must be carefully distinguished by job title and clearly involve different job content and job requirements. Where ABC type classifications have developed for ‘historical’ reasons it is essential that a thorough job analysis be conducted to ensure that more than one level of the job actually exits. If this is not done, claims for “higher duties” payments or upgrade to a higher classification are likely to be an ongoing source of grievances. PreciseContinue reading

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards – Impact on Individual and Organization Performance

In this competitive environment nowadays, organisations are predicted to be more aggressive on empowering the employees because the employees’ job satisfactions are important for the whole organizational performance. Because of this reason, in order to achieve the organization’s missions and goals, the effectiveness on managing the motivation of employees should not be excluded. The motivation such as employees’ satisfaction on their works or the rewards given to them leads to better performance in their organization. Rewards are the performance incentives that given by the company to the individuals due to their good work performance. There are two types of rewards that normally implemented by the organizations to motivate the employees, extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards. Based on the Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation, extrinsic rewards are positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives from some other person in the work setting, include such things as pay, financial incentives, security,Continue reading

Pay Concept in Human Resource Management

Pay, the financial facet of reward, is an important form in reward system; after all, it is the main reason why people work. In a pay system design, the fundamentally compensation policy issues are pay level, pay structure, and pay form. Pay level refers to pay position of an organisation compared with other competitors in labor market. In a word, it refers to ‘how much’ employees are paid. Organisations can lag, lead, or match the market. Pay structure refers to a framework within which an organisation sets different pay levels for jobs or groups of jobs. In some organisations, it presents as pay grades. Pay forms are methods of rewarding people for their efforts to the organisation and influence employee motivation and performance. There are two types of pay – fixed pay and variable pay. Fixed pay is contractual compensation that regularly paid and does not vary according to performanceContinue reading