Multinational Corporations and Home Country Relations

Public attitudes toward Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are biased by a nation’s position as a home or host country. Historically, home countries have perceived MNC activities as desirable extensions of their domestic business systems. Conversely host countries have viewed MNCs as agents of foreign influenced and exploitation. This historic dichotomy is now shot through with conflicting perceptions of the MNCs. Different segments of society, such as labor, investors, consumers, traders, and farmers, see their interests affected in different ways. As a result, a multi-sided controversy about the societal merits and demerits of MNCs has grown in both host and home countries. The most aggressive challenge to the traditionally supportive home country policies towards MNCs has come from organized labor. Labor Conflict Multi-nationalization has created for management new mobility and flexibility that have greatly enhanced its bargaining power vis-à-vis labor. Since the sourcing base of the multinational firm knows no national boundariesContinue reading

Global Company Competitiveness Analysis

A domestic company may extend its products to foreign markets by exporting, licensing and franchising. Initially, the exporting is indirect. It may develop a more serious attitude towards foreign business and move to the next stage of development. International company is normally the second stage in the development of a company towards transnational corporation. The orientation of the company is basically ethnocentric and the marketing strategy is extension. The marketing mix developed for the home market is extended into the foreign markets when a company decides to respond to market differences, it involves into the stage there multinational that pursues a multidomestic strategy. Multinational company’s each foreign subsidiary is managed as if it were an independent city stage. The subsidiaries are part of an area structure in which each country is part of a regional organization that reports to world headquarters. The transnational corporation is much more than a companyContinue reading

How Does International Business Differ From Domestic Business?

It is almost commonplace today to find businesses venturing into international markets. Thanks to advancements in communication and information technology, this trend will most certainly persist for the predictable future. The most domestic organization’s when considering expansion will usually look outside their geographical location. This usually means looking at opportunities in international markets. It is believed that managing and running a domestic business is less complex than undertaking international business for a number of reasons. Nation-states typically have unique laws governing trade and investment, variations in business ethics and culture, different political systems, monetary policies, currencies, and so on. And these are all possible factors that could make international business more complicated and therefore, riskier than doing business at home. In discussing the differences between international business and domestic business, it will make sense to discuss issues involved in doing business internationally that will not otherwise be present or proveContinue reading

Foreign Direct Investment and the Business Environment

Direct investment abroad is a complex venture. As distinct from trade, licensing or investment, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) involves a long-term commitment to a business endeavor in a foreign country. It often involves the engagement of considerable assets and resources that need to be coordinated and managed across countries and to satisfy the principle of successful investment, such as sustainable profitability and acceptable risk/profitability ratios. Typically, there are many host country factors involved in deciding where an FDI project should be located and it is often difficult to pinpoint the most decisive factor. However, it is widely agreed that FDI takes place when three sets of determining factors exist simultaneously; the presence of ownership-specific competitive ages in a transnational corporation (TNC), the presence of locational advantages in a host country, and the presence of superior commercial benefits in an intra-firm as against an arm’s-length relationship between investor and recipient. TheContinue reading

Trends in International Trade and Cross Border Financial Flows

When a firm operates only in the domestic market, both for procuring inputs as well as selling its output, it needs to deal only in the domestic currency. As companies try to increase their international presence, either by undertaking international trade or by establishing operations in foreign countries, they start dealing with people and firms in various nations. Since different countries have different domestic currencies, the question arises as to which currency should the trade be settled in. The settlement currency may either be the domestic currency of one of the parties to the trade, or may be an internationally accepted currency. This gives rise to the problem of dealing with a number of currencies. The mechanism by which the exchange rate between these currencies (i.e., the value of one currency in terms of another) is determined, along with the level and the variability of the exchange rates can haveContinue reading

International Asset Protection

Company’s investments and other assets in foreign countries may face the risk of expropriation. Governments are therefore concerned about the protection of the interests of their national companies in the foreign countries. The potential risk was more before the worldwide liberalization set in the 1980s. Important protective measures in this respect include the following: Coercion and Pressure Until the Second World War, home countries used military force and coercion to ensure that host governments would give foreign investors prompt, adequate, and effective compensation in cases of expropriation, under a concept known as the international standard of fair dealing. It may be noted that the home countries of the companies involved were developed ones and the host countries were developing nations and these host countries had little to say about this standard. In a two conference held at The Hague in 1930 and at Montevideo in 1933, participating developing countries gotContinue reading