Role of SMEs in Economic Development

All over the world, there is growing evidence that Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the national economic development of any country. SMEs are becoming more and more a subject of high attention in the developing countries, countries in transition but also in the countries with developed economies.

In market economies, SMEs are the engine of economic development. Thanks to their private ownership, entrepreneurial spirit, their flexibility and adaptability as well as their potential to react to challenges and changing environments, SMEs contribute to sustainable growth and employment generation in a significant manner.

Until latest, the private sectors of many emerging economies were missing the middle level of development.… Read the rest

National Income Statistics: Meaning and Uses

What is National Income Statistics?

According to most dictionaries, national income is literally the total amount of money earned by a certain country. But in order to calculate the total funds and asset of the country, National Income Statistics are used, which are basically a set of rules, techniques and calculation to measure the total value of final goods and services produced. However, The National Income Statistics are only valid to calculate the national income of a country in a year.

The Uses of National Income Statistics

Like every other calculations, The National Income Statistics also have their own uses. The National Income Statistics are very important to the development of a certain country as it is the result of hard works done in a year to contribute in the enhancement of a certain country.… Read the rest

Circular Flow of Income in a Three-Sector Economy and National Income Calculation

There are three main sectors of economy consists of household sectors, business sectors and government sectors. Household sector provides the factors of the production such as land, labor and capital and enterprise that the producers require to produce goods and services. They also receive payments as in rent, wages, interest and profits from the business sector. It is also stated that in general, household sector consists of the greatest number of consumers among all sectors and satisfying the wants will cause consume of their climate aim. Business sector act as a part as in receiving economy resources from household sector and in exchange for consumer expenditure, they also provide household sectors goods and services.… Read the rest

Concept of Export Diversification in International Business

Earlier a country’s economic development was based either on the degree of specialization or diversification of a country’s production and trade structure. Based on Adam Smith’s concept towards the division of labor and specialization for economic growth and development to Heckscher-Ohlin Samuelson (HOS) model of international trade, countries should specialize in producing and specializing in the goods in which they have a comparative advantage. However, after the Second World War, the idea was that economic growth and development may be achieved by export diversification (not specialization). There were active efforts by the government to promote industrialization and economic growth.

Export diversification is often the primary objective of many developed countries.… Read the rest

Predicting Financial Distress and Corporate Failure

The financial failure of a company can have a devastating effect on all seven users of financial statements e.g. present and potential investors, customers, creditors, employees, lenders, the general public, etc. As a result, users of financial statements as indicated previously are interested in predicting not only whether a company will fail, but also when it will fail e.g. to avoid high profile corporate failures at Enron, Arthur Anderson, and WorldCom, etc. Users of financial statements can predict the financial position of an organization using the Altman Z score model, Argenti A score model, and by looking at the financial statements i.e.… Read the rest

The SCP Paradigm – Structure drives Conduct which drives Performance

The SCP paradigm assumes that the market structure determines the conduct of the organization. This conduct, in turn, is the determinant of market performance. Examples of market performance include efficiency, profitability and growth. The Structure Conduct Performance Framework seeks to establish that certain structures of the industry can lead to certain kinds of conduct or behavior which then leads to various types of economic performance. The SCP paradigm was developed through evaluation of empirical studies involving American industries. Theoretical models were not used to support the paradigm. The conclusion that was drawn from empirical studies was that market structure determined performance.… Read the rest