Attitudes – Definition, Components, Sources and Types

Attitudes can be defined as an individual’s feelings about or inclinations towards other persons, objects, events, or activities. Attitudes encompass such affective feelings as likes and dislikes, and satisfactions and dissatisfactions. Our needs, past experiences, self-concept, and personality shape the beliefs, feelings, and opinion we hold towards the perceived world. Once we have formed our likes and dislikes, we generally cling on to them and find it difficult to change our attitudes, unless we make a conscious and determined effort to do so. An interesting phenomenon is that our values shape our attitudes. Traditionally, behavioral scientists have divided attitudes into two major groups: i) those that are cognitive (for example, beliefs or expectations about cause-effect relationships between events) and ii) those that are evaluative (for example, liking or disliking for event). An example of a cognitive attitude would be an employee’s belief that superior job performance would be rewarded byContinue reading

Perception – Meaning, Definition, Process and Influencing Factors

Meaning and Definition of Perception Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Perception is not just what one sees with eyes. It is a much more complex process by which an individual selectively absorbs or assimilates the stimuli in the environment, cognitively organizes the perceived information in a specific fashion and then interprets the information to make an assessment about what people select, organize, and interpret or attach meaning to events happening in the environment. Since perception is subjective process, different people may perceive the same environment differently based on what particular aspects of the situation they choose. For example, some employees may perceive the work place as great if it has favorable working conditions, good pay. Others may perceive it as great if it has challenging assignments and opportunity to grow. ManagersContinue reading

Shortcuts in Judging Others – Meaning, Types and Applications

Meaning of Shortcuts in Judging Others In perceiving the stimuli in our environment, people are likely to make so many errors and ended up with poor results. Some of those errors are stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, distortions, attributions, projections etc. Each of these errors is dysfunctional for good decision making and management. Since subjective emotions, judgmental attitudes, and distortion of facts are common in perceiving any situation, we have tried to identify ways in which we can minimize perceptual biases. The need for managers to accurately perceive the environment and how manages can sharpen their perceptual skill are vital in enhancing perceptual skills. People tend to follow a number of shortcut methods when observing others and making judgment of others activities. These techniques are to some extent valuable and allow us to make accurate perceptions rapidly and provide valid data for making predictions. However, they are not foolproof. However,Continue reading

What is Personality? Meaning, Definition, Determinants and Traits

People tend to have a general notion that personality refers to a personal appearance with charming smile, or outlook. But psychologists view the concept as dynamic in nature concerned with growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. Personality can be defined as the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. Personality is defined as relatively stable and enduring characteristics that determine our thoughts, feelings and behavior. Personality is a complex phenomenon and there are various perspectives of personality construct. One common and simple definition of Personality is: It is the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. Research studies shows that individual’s personality is more or less consistent, lasting, and can remain substantially constant across all the situations and time. But there are individualContinue reading

Relationship Between Organizational Structures and Cultures

Organizational Structure Organizational Structure is the strategic manner by which organizations arrange (or rearrange) themselves. This is essentially important in determining how organizations plan on utilizing their resources, particularly their human resources. To do so efficiently, certain questions need to have precise answers such as the specific responsibilities of each individual within the organization, to whom exactly they report and most importantly the coordination process that is to be implemented to bring together all these people and processes simultaneously. Bearing in mind that any framework followed needs to be consistent with the organizations main objectives, a formal channel defining the lines of authority from top to bottom (i.e. Hierarchy of Authority) is established which identifies clearly who is responsible for which personnel and/or tasks. Traditionally, the authority of decision-making has been a centralized process (i.e. directed to higher-level management), but with increasing challenges & innovation in recent times, many organizationsContinue reading

Relationship between Organization Climate and Organizational Behavior Models

Autocratic Model: The autocratic model of organizational behavior creates a climate in which the feelings of the workers are suppressed and they have to just be obedient and tolerative with the autocratic behavior of the employer. The personal relationship between the employer and the employee is not up to the mark. The labor turnover will be considerable when there is high dissatisfaction of the employees with their boss since they have no other alternative except to leave the job. In case of bottleneck in production or marketing, the employees simply keep mum and they never come out with suggestions for solving the problem. When the worker leaves his Job, he will burst out with his boss with thick words coming from his soul and he will never have an idea to re-enter the service. As far as autocratic model is concerned the workers sustain a tight organizational climate and theyContinue reading