Research Design

A research design is nothing but a detailed plan of action for the research. A researcher attempting to solve the research problem, should necessarily prepare a plan which will help him to attain his ultimate motto. This plan is nothing but a research design. It is a plan which defines research problem, identifies data needed, decides on tool of data collection, and type of study etc. It is a tentative plan which undergoes many modifications as the research study progresses. It presents a series of guide posts to enable the researcher to progress in the right direction. Definitions of Research Design Several definitions of Research Design have been advanced by several writers on the subject of research methodology. Few of them are presented here: According to Claire Seltiz, Research Design is a catalogue of the various and facts relating to the formulation of a research effort. It is the arrangementContinue reading

Observation Method of Research Data Collection

Observation means the careful and systematic watching of facts as they occur in course of nature. In the strict sense, observation implies more use of the eyes and the ears than the mouth. Aspects of Observation Observation involves three processes, i.e. (i) sensation (ii) attention (iii) perception. Sensation is gained through the sense organs which depend upon the physical alertness of the observer. The sense organs are receptive to stimuli and get attracted leading to the first stage in observation. Then comes attention or concentration which is largely a matter of commitment and will-power. Adequate training and experience can make it almost a matter of habit. The third is perception which comprises the interpretation of sensory reports. Thus, sensation merely reports the facts as observed but perception enables the mind to recognize the facts. Through this process, observation serves the purpose of (i) studying collective behavior and complex social situations;Continue reading

Simple Random Sampling in Research

In probability sampling, each element of the population has a known non-zero chance of being selected for the sample. Among the probability sampling methods, simple random sampling is simplest as its name indicate and it underlies many of the more complex methods. In a simple random sample of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability. Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of selection: the frame is not subdivided or partitioned. Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair (and similarly for triples, and so on). This minimises bias and simplifies analysis of results. In particular, the variance between individual results within the sample is a good indicator of variance in the overall population, which makes it relatively easy to estimate the accuracy of results. However, simple random sampling can beContinue reading

Classification and Tabulation of Data in Research

Classification is the way of arranging the data in different classes in order to give a definite form and a coherent structure to the data collected, facilitating their use in the most systematic and effective manner. It is the process of grouping the statistical data under various understandable homogeneous groups for the purpose of convenient interpretation. A uniformity of attributes is the basis criterion for classification; and the grouping of data is made according to similarity. Classification becomes necessary when there is diversity in the data collected for meaningful presentation and analysis. However, in respect of homogeneous presentation of data, classification may be unnecessary. Objectives of classification of data: To group heterogeneous data under the homogeneous group of common characteristics; To facility similarity of various group; To facilitate effective comparison; To present complex, haphazard and scattered dates in a concise, logical, homogeneous, and intelligible form; To maintain clarity and simplicityContinue reading

Stratified Random Sampling in Research

In the example of choosing a simple random sample of twenty employees out of a thousand in a factory, suppose they include 100 supervise and 900 workers. A simple random sample comes by mere chance and it possible that among the twenty chosen, all may be supervisors or none may be. If the researcher feels that he should study both the subgroups, it would be me sensible to take a random sample from each subgroup (stratum) after separate lists for the two strata. Such sampling is called stratified random sampling. Stratification may be done in business research on differ characteristics like sex, age (e.g. young, middle-aged, old), race, religion, occupation, education, residential area (e.g., rural, urban) ownership of (e.g., public sector, private sector), size of business or income. The stratification may be proportionate or disproportionate. In the sampling of twenty employees from a factory described above, if 2 supervisorsContinue reading

Significance and Problems of Social Research

Significance of Social Research Within the last 20 to 25 years, courses in methods of social research have come to occupy an increasingly important role in sociological curricula. It likely that at present every major university offers such courses. This is because growing significance of social research and also growing job opportunities in this field. The market analysis, the public opinion expert, the investigator of communication and propaganda all are growing facts for governmental and business needs. Knowledge of social research is useful for interpreting and weighing such reports. In the present age, social science are accruing a scientific method of study for this method, research is an important factor. In the last two or three decades, social research has become an important subject of the curriculum of Sociology. In fact almost all the universities, where sociology is taught, social research is a part of the curriculum of the sociology.Continue reading