Written Analysis of the Case Study Problems in Management

There is a little difference between the classroom discussion and written analysis of case problem. The following steps can guide the students to analyse the case problem and arrive at best possible solution.

1.  Summary of the case: The important facts in the case are pointed out in brief. It is the indication that the student has grasped the contents of the case precisely.

2.  Identify the problem involved in the case: After giving a careful reading to the case, see certain apparent problems in the situation. Some are very prominent and most immediate. Whereas some may be partially indicated. The student has to mention the basic problem interwoven  in the case, e.g. a case may indicate failure in delegation due to too much interference of the boss; another case may indicate the need for taking appropriate disciplinary action to set things right with regard to labour management relations or Stale policy in respect of minimum wages etc. Such basic problem should be set out in clear terms. The problem is usually related with some basic principles of management or industrial relations. The student may indicate such principle basic to the main issue.

Recommended reading: Analysis of Problems in Management Case Studies

3.  Analysis of the case: The case should be read carefully because each sentence may present an important fact. Some details in the case are directly or indirectly responsible for the problem situation presented in the case. The facts may concern resources, plans, people, actions, inter-relationships, industrial disputes, efficiency of workers, collective bargaining etc.… Read the rest

Analysis of Problems in Management Case Studies

The case can be analysed from different points of view. Usually there are four parties involved in the case, viz., the proprietor or top management, the middle management departmental heads, the employees or workers and finally the society in general (it includes consumers, distributors, investors, potential employees and those who are directly or indirectly affected by the organization), which is mostly disguised. While analysing and suggesting solutions, the student should try to look at the case from these different points of view and try to pin point violation of rules, regulations, code of conduct or precedents in vogue. The solution to be suggested must be in the larger interests of safeguarding the provisions of laws, code of conduct, rules and regulations to restore the normal positron. The solution should be in the interests of the organization, the weaker sections of the organization and society in general.

While analysing the case, the social, economic and political environment should also be taken into consideration, e.g. the background of poverty of workers, illiteracy in the country, outside political interference in trade union activities, lack of job opportunities in the country for labour mobility, liberalisation of the economy, impact of democratic principles on workers etc. Many times, the problem in the organization is created due to such outside factors. If the student is aware of these factors/situations, he will be able to analyse the case in its proper perspective and suggest a practicable solution.

The student should quote or give definitions of the authorities in Management Science or Economists in support of the suggested solution.… Read the rest

Case Study and Different Areas of Management

The   cases   of   management cannot   be   properly   analysed and solved   unless the student has a thorough knowledge of die subject. The cases of General Management may be on the functions of management like planning, co-ordination, organization, control and decision-making. The cases also relate to the principles of management like division of labour, centralisation and decentralization of authority, span of control, equity, remuneration, unity of direction, unity of command etc. While solving the case problem the student must be able to know to which function or principle of management the case relates. It will enable the student to analyse the case properly as he becomes clear about what is ‘required “as per functions or principles and what is lacking in the given situation of the case.

The cases of Personnel Management relate to recruitment, selection, induction, placement, wage and salary administration, promotion and transfers, career planning and development, job evaluation, performance appraisal, merit rating, job enlargement, disciplinary actions, motivation etc. The student must know the exact meaning of these concepts and procedures in detail and the practices in vogue for implementation of the same. Unless he knows it thoroughly, he may not be able lo pin point the departure from standard practice, procedure or precedent and suggest remedial steps to restore the position.

The cases of Industrial Relations and Trade Unions consist of Industrial Relations, Industrial Disputes, efficiency of workers, payment of wages, bonus, collective bargaining, negotiations, strikes and lockouts, code of conduct and discipline, grievance procedure. The student must know the provisions of the various labour legislations to suggest proper action for resolving the problem given in the case.… Read the rest

Case Study Method in Management

Management education is mainly aimed at developing managerial skills in students. Amongst the various methods adopted in teaching management and management functions, the case study method developed in 1910 in U.S.A. and is now being propagated during the last decade or so, providing opportunities to both the teacher and the taught to promote managerial I understanding and competence, since it helps in contemplation and discussion of an actual situation. It is a wrong notion that the case studies are confined to management students. Cases may pertain lo any discipline, where skills for solving complex unstructured problems or preparing plans are required. The origin of case study methods itself can be traced to Harward Lawyers. Cases may describe problems facing individuals, groups, institutions or even Nations.

Through a case study one learns a broad range of skills and has many alternatives. Case studies encourage the practice and attainment of analytical and communicative skills. Case study method in management education allow a different kind of learning. It is close to the learn by doing’ approach.  Cases are intended to stimulate the reality of the manager’s job.  The material in the case provides data for analysis and decision-making. Cases require the student to make decisions about the situations presented and to defend those decisions. In real decision-making the student will have lo persuade superiors that his analysis and solutions are the best and hence the communication and interpersonal skills are vital to success in management. Cases provide the opportunity lo improve these skills.

A case is defined by Reynold as, “a short description in words and numbers, of an actual management situation”.… Read the rest

Meaning of Centralization and its advantages and disadvantages

Centralization of an office organization

In any business organization, concentration of authority and powers in the hands of top management is referred to as centralization, everything which goes to reduce the importance of subordinates role in an organization is known as centralization. In such a type of office organization, the authority and powers of each and every activity lies in the hands of top few, say office manager and his immediate subordinate, and other subordinates play the second and subsequent fiddles. In fact, they are not to play any role. Instead they asked to work and only work according to the dictates of what the boss wants and orders.

Centralization of the powers in respect of planning and control in not a new thing in any management. But centralization refers to the reduction of subordinates to a naught. Thus, treatment accorded to them is only that of a machine. Subordinates are asked only to function as a machine whereas the top management functions as operators. In fact, this position has brought disrepute to the term centralization in modern management set-up.

Advantages of centralization

  • Facility for personnel leadership.There is absolutely no doubt that the centralized Office organization helps in establishing a personnel leadership which may even be able to convert a losing business house into a profitable one because of strong, efficient, purposeful and non controversial central leadership.
  • Equitable distribution of work.  In order to group together and economies the working as well as cost the grouping of two and more departments into one also placing the same under one control goes a long way in equitably distributing in workload not only between different departments but between individual worker as well.
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Meaning of Decentralization and its advantages

Meaning of Decentralization

“ Delegation of authority and duties” is usually referred to as decentralization in which set up the organization is divided into different section and departments in order to help the organization grow scientifically and with a purpose of direction leading to harmony in relations and healthy atmosphere which generally is absent in centralized system of organization.

“Decentralization of authority,” holds Koontz and O’Donnell, “ is a fundamental phase of delegation.” To the extent that authority is not delegated is obviously centralization. In the words of Henry fayol, “every thing that goes to increase the importance of the subordinate’s role is decentralization.”

Decentralization is diffusion of authority. It is a process by which specific responsibility is assigned to subordinates. Such a responsibility, when assigned to subordinates, is always followed by sufficient authority which also is given to the executive and other subordinates at lower levels. Decentralization, therefore, refers to assigning of responsibility and delegation of authority to various executives and other subordinates at lower levels in an effort to make the lower level more responsible and accountant able to the job entrusted to them.

Advantages of Decentralization

The following are the advantages of decentralized setup of an organization:

  • Distribution of Executive’s Burden. Certainly the decentralized setup offers an opportunity to the executive to share his burden with others at lower level in the process making himself free for more urgent and important work requiring his undivided attention. This smooth-ens the work gives speed to the work, creates cordial atmosphere and better understanding and develops team spirit among all those who are working for the organization.
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