Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies

In 1985, in his book Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Michael Porter, outlined a set of generic strategies that could be applied to all products or services. In coping with the Porters model of five competitive forces, there are three potentially successful generic strategic approaches (also known as Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies) to outperforming other firms in an industry: Overall cost leadership. Differentiation. Focus. Sometimes the firm can successfully pursue more than one approach as its primary target, though this is rarely possible as will be discussed further. Effectively implementing any of these generic strategies usually requires total commitment and supporting organizational arrangements that are diluted if there is more than one primary target. The generic strategies are approaches to outperforming competitors in the industry; in some industries structure will mean that all firms can earn high returns, whereas in others, success with one of the genericContinue reading

Why Firms Introduce New Products Into Markets?

Excess Capacity as a Reason for Expanding Product-line The presence of excess production capacity is, perhaps, the most important single factor leading to product-line diversification. Broadly conceived, excess capacity is said to exist when it would cost the multiple-product firm less to make and sell the new product than it would cost a new company set up to produce only that product. Excess capacity may occur for several reasons. It may be the result of an unduly over-optimistic estimated market for the firm’s products. In such a case, if anticipated level of demand is not forthcoming, the firm develops excess capacity. Excess capacity may be due to seasonal variations in demand also, the latter being a result of weather and custom, e.g., greeting cards, ice-cream, etc. Companies faced with seasonal demand for their products would certainly find it advisable to add to their product-line in off-season a new product toContinue reading