Usage of Macroeconomics for Business Decisions

Decision making is an important job of corporate managers. They have to take decisions regarding the employment of land, labor, and capital in such a manner that output may be maximized at least possible cost. Hence, they are always in search of optimum combination of resources which would maximize corporate profit.

Appropriate decision making is the strength of business. Success in business depends on proper and correct decision making. Location, scale of operation, quantum of resources to be employed, marketing etc are some of the important problems calling for decisions in business where macroeconomics may be applied for better results.

Macro Economic Analysis

Macroeconomics is concerned with the study of aggregate economic variables.… Read the rest

Different Market Structures and Pricing Strategies

In the world of business and economics, marketing structures are considered to be the structures that assist with connecting buyers, sellers, products and services to one another. Some of the elements that market structures connect and work with are production levels, different forms of competition, different forms of products and services, ease of entry and exit from the marketplace, buyers, sellers, and even the agreement between particular agents. Depending on what type of market structure a company is either choosing to use, or is forced to use, will determine what type of pricing strategy they are going to need to utilize.… Read the rest

Effects of Black Money on Economy

Black money is generated due to the following reasons:

  1. The people do not pay their taxes. Even if they pay taxes, they are not in correct proportions to their incomes. The tax evasions by corporate and industrial houses are to the tune of billions of rupees. These firms are able to make clever usage of the income tax rules and hence, they save taxes. This tax evasion leads to the generation of black money.
  2. The black money is earned by gifts, hawala transactions and illegal foreign exchange deals. These deals are not scrutinized by the government simply because these are without any documentary evidences.
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Pigovian Tax – Meaning and Definition

Neo-classicals uphold perfect competition as the ideal state of the market. But in truth, the economy is fraught with market failures. Therefore, we need government interference to correct many of these market failures. Pigovian Tax (also spelled  Pigouvian tax) imposed by the government is one such course of intervention. It helps to curb negative externalities (e.g. pollution) and reduce the burden on the society caused by the externalities (social costs of production and consumption). Moreover, it attacks over-consumption, bringing it closer to the socially optimal level of production and/or consumption.

What is Pigovian Tax?

Pigovian tax is a kind of tax, which is levied to correct a negative cost that is created by the actions of any business firm, but that is not considered in a firm’s private costs or profits.… Read the rest

Price Discrimination in Managerial Economics

In today’s economies where product and service competition is dense, to sell products and services to consumers in the way as expected by the company has become harder but at the same time necessary compared to the past. It has become unavoidable for the firms to use various pricing strategies alongside with the classical selling strategies to reach this goal.

In today’s economic conditions in which the markets being far from full competitive state resulted the firms functioning in this market to become more or less a price-maker. For this reason, one of the ways for the firms that aim to increase the total income thus the total profit can use is, to implement different pricing for consumers with different specialties instead of applying the same pricing for all the consumer groups.… Read the rest

The Causes and Effects of Unemployment

The term unemployment is used to describe anyone who is able to work, but doesn’t have an occupation. Unemployment is one of the most common and chronic problems worldwide. It is a concern for individuals as well as global communities. Unemployment is expressed as percentage of the total available work force that is unemployed, but actively seeking employment and willing to work which is known as the unemployment rate.

Basically there are five types of unemployment: frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, real wage or classical unemployment, and seasonal unemployment. The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances.… Read the rest