Dornbusch Exchange Rate Overshooting Model

The Dornbusch overshooting model, developed by Rudiger Dornbusch in 1976, is a theoretical framework used to explain the dynamics of exchange rates. It suggests that when there is a change in monetary policy or other economic factors, exchange rates overshoot their long-run capital flows before settling back to their equilibrium levels. The model helps explain the short-term volatility of exchange rates, which can have significant implications for international trade, investment, and capital flows. Assumptions of the Model: The Dornbusch overshooting model is based on several key assumptions. First, it assumes that prices and wages are sticky in the short run, meaning that they do not adjust immediately to changes in economic conditions. This is because many contracts, such as labor contracts and long-term supply contracts, are negotiated in advance and do not reflect current market conditions. As a result, changes in the money supply or other economic factors can leadContinue reading

An Overview of Supply-Side Economics

Supply side economics, also known as Reaganomics, is a form of economic theory that emphasizes the importance of incentives for individuals and businesses in order to increase economic growth. This theory is based on the idea that the supply of goods and services determines the overall health of an economy. In this article, we will explore the main principles of supply side economics, its history, and its impact on the economy. The main principles of supply side economics can be summed up as follows: Tax cuts: The theory asserts that tax cuts, especially for businesses and the wealthy, will lead to increased investment and growth. The idea is that lower taxes will encourage individuals and businesses to work harder and invest more in the economy. Deregulation: Deregulation is another key principle of supply side economics. The theory argues that too much government regulation can stifle economic growth. Deregulation allows businessesContinue reading

Effect of Agglomeration in Urban Economies

In order for the economy to grow, an urban area has to be positioned in an area where development exists and where there is economic growth is running. As long as economic energy is in an urban area, also the activity of urban force, it is necessary to gain a contribution to the appearance of the role of urban areas in economic growth and development. Economists are concerned about how the economic growth of their cities is increased. Mostly populated urban areas, chances of an economic opportunity exist in those areas. The majority of ideas analyze the importance of growth opportunities in an urban area. Internal economies make the production of firms produce goods that are more cost-effective than single members. Agglomeration economies cause firms to cluster in the cities and clustering causes economic power and development in that city. Talking about people’s growth, it is the first time inContinue reading

Role of SMEs in Economic Development

All over the world, there is growing evidence that Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the national economic development of any country. SMEs are becoming more and more a subject of high attention in the developing countries, countries in transition but also in the countries with developed economies. In market economies, SMEs are the engine of economic development. Thanks to their private ownership, entrepreneurial spirit, their flexibility and adaptability as well as their potential to react to challenges and changing environments, SMEs contribute to sustainable growth and employment generation in a significant manner. Until latest, the private sectors of many emerging economies were missing the middle level of development. Investors, policymakers, and professionals dedicated most of their efforts to big companies of over 500 employees, larger enterprises or multinationals. Large Enterprises and MNCs were target of TAX incentives and subsidies whereas organizations like World Bank andContinue reading

National Income Statistics: Meaning and Uses

What is National Income Statistics? According to most dictionaries, national income is literally the total amount of money earned by a certain country. But in order to calculate the total funds and asset of the country, National Income Statistics are used, which are basically a set of rules, techniques and calculation to measure the total value of final goods and services produced. However, The National Income Statistics are only valid to calculate the national income of a country in a year. The Uses of National Income Statistics Like every other calculations, The National Income Statistics also have their own uses. The National Income Statistics are very important to the development of a certain country as it is the result of hard works done in a year to contribute in the enhancement of a certain country. Firstly, as we all know money and riches usually determines the standard of living ofContinue reading

Usage of Macroeconomics for Business Decisions

Decision making is an important job of corporate managers. They have to take decisions regarding the employment of land, labor, and capital in such a manner that output may be maximized at least possible cost. Hence, they are always in search of optimum combination of resources which would maximize corporate profit. Appropriate decision making is the strength of business. Success in business depends on proper and correct decision making. Location, scale of operation, quantum of resources to be employed, marketing etc are some of the important problems calling for decisions in business where macroeconomics may be applied for better results. Macro Economic Analysis Macroeconomics is concerned with the study of aggregate economic variables. It is concerned with the whole economy and studies the level and the growth of national income, the levels of employment, the level of private and government spending, the balance of payments, the consumption & the investment, saving functionsContinue reading