International Trade Theories – Absolute, Comparative and Competitive Advantage

Absolute advantage theory was first presented by Adam Smith in his book “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776. Smith provided the first concept of a nation’s wealth. Adam Smith is a grandfather of economics because he introduced two important concepts that many of the new trade theories are based on these two main concepts, which are specialization and free exchange. However, many arguments were made and many economists thought there was a problem with the theory of absolute advantage after David Ricardo published the theory of “comparative cost” (aka “comparative advantage”) in the early 19th century. Even though Smith and his followers introduced many important points for the thoughts of economic, it is too complicated with this simple version of trade theory in today’s global economy. In 1990, Michael Porter introduced the diamond model of new competitiveness theory. These three trade theories are important in order to make a countryContinue reading

Poverty Trap

Poverty trap is a situation where an unemployed person receiving social security benefits not encouraged to seek work because his or her after €tax earnings potential in work is less than the benefits currently obtained by not working. The poverty trap occurs due to benefits such as income support, housing benefit, single parent allowance and family tax credit. Given that social security benefits represent the ‘bottom line’ (that is, the provision of some socially and politically ‘acceptable’ minimum standard of living), the problem is how to reconcile this with the ‘work ethic’. For example, consider the case of a low-skilled person in the UK. He is unable to get a high-paid job because he doesn’t have the right skills, training or experience. He has two options. First one is to get a low-paid job or second option is to claim unemployment benefits. If he gets a low paid job heContinue reading

Price Elasticity Of Demand – Concept and Types

The price elasticity of demand measures the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded for a certain commodity to the change in its price. In other words, the price elasticity of demand is defined as the ‘ratio of percentage change in the quantity demanded to the percentage change in price. It can be expressed as follows: Price elasticity of demand (ep) = Percentage change in quantity of demand / Percentage change in price Where, ep = Coefficient of price elasticity of demand. The price elasticity of demand is always negative due to the inverse relationship between the price and quantity demanded. But for the sake of simplicity in understanding the magnitude of response of quantity demanded to the change in the price we ignore the negative sign and take into account only the numerical value of the price elasticity of demand. Types of Price Elasticity of Demand There are five types ofContinue reading