Glocalization – Definition, Advantages and Disadvantages

Globalization is one of the most important phenomena of the recent past and of the future. The term “Globalization” describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies and cultures are becoming more integrated through a dramatically increased global network of technological, economic, political and cultural exchanges. In specifically economic contexts, the term refers to the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, particularly trade liberalization or free trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration and the spread of technology. This worldwide phenomenon of interaction among the countries is driven largely by advances in communication, transportation and legal infrastructure as well as the political choice of countries to open cross-border links in international trade and finance.

Due to many difficulties that a globalization strategy faces another term has developed in recent years called “Glocalization”. In contrast to globalization, the glocalization strategy, which means thinking globally but acting locally, is a more modern and different approach.

The term “Glocalization”, which had become a buzzword in business world in 2000, describes a historical process whereby the local is integrated into the global. This means that localities develop economic and cultural relationships to the global system through information technologies, bypassing and subverting traditional power hierarchies like national governments and markets including cultures clash with newly introduced cultural concepts, ideologies and practices. So put simply, globalization is a move toward centralization, while glocalization is a move toward decentralization.

Definition of Glocalization

Glocalization is a combination of the words “globalization” and “localization” and emphasize the idea that a product or service is developed and distributed globally is more likely to succeed if it is adapted to the specific requirements of local practices, legislation, fiscal regime, socio-political system, cultural expectations, local laws, customs and consumer preferences.… Read the rest

Social Aspects of International Advertising

When we consider International Advertising from the advertiser’s point of view, according to them the primary objective of advertisement is that the product or services which they are offering should be sold in the market. And in achieving the main objective of selling the product or services there are other profound consequences. Advertising puts an influence which is both persuasive and pervasive in nature. Through the selective reinforcement of certain language and values, and social goal, it acts as important force attitudes that underlie behavior not only in the market place, but also in all aspects of life. In an international marketing concern, advertising has an important social influence in a number of ways: many of the international advertising are designed to promote and introduce new products from one market to another. Often this results in sudden change in life-styles, behavior patterns of a society, stimulating for example the adoption of fast food, casual attire or hygiene and beauty products. International advertising encourages desire for products from other countries; it creates expectations about “the good life”, and establishes new areas of consumption. Advertising is thus a potent force for change, while selectively reinforcing life-styles, certain values and role models.

We can see the examples of brands like Levi’s, Adidas, Reebok, Nike, Marlboro and McDonalds which are familiar in almost every corner of the world. These brands have become an object of desire by the teen and young adults throughout the world. Even the scenes and images which have been shown in the international advertising are either in western in origin or reflect western consumption behavior and values.… Read the rest

Global Market Models and Concept Analysis

Managers must be conscious that markets, supplies, investors, locations, partners, and competitors can be anywhere in the world. Successful businesses will take advantage of opportunities wherever they are and will be prepared for downfalls. Evidently, successful managers, in this environment, need to understand the similarities and differences across national boundaries, in order to utilize the opportunities and deal with the potential downfalls. In developing appropriate global strategies, managers need to take the benefits and drawbacks of globalization into account. A global strategy must be in the context of events around the globe, as well as those at home. International strategy is the continuous and comprehensive management technique designed to help companies operate and compete effectively across national boundaries. While companies’ top managers typically develop global strategies, they rely on all levels of management in order to implement these strategies successfully. The methods companies use to accomplish the goals of these strategies take a host of forms. For example, some companies form partnerships with companies in other countries, others acquire companies in other countries, others still develop products, services, and marketing campaigns designed to appeal to customers in other countries. Some rudimentary aspects of international strategies mirror domestic strategies in that companies must determine what products or services to sell, where and how to sell them, where and how they will produce or provide them, and how they will compete with other companies in the industry in accordance with company goals. The development of international strategies entails attention to other details that seldom, if ever, come into play in the domestic market.… Read the rest

Push and Pull Factors in International Business

Companies decide to go global and enter international markets for a variety of reasons, and these different objectives at the time of entry should produce different strategies, performance goals, and even forms of market participation. However, companies often follow a standard market entry and development strategy. The most common is sometimes referred to as the “increasing commitment” method of market development, in which market entry is done via an independent local partner. As business and confidence grows, a switch to a directly controlled subsidiary is often enacted. This internationalization approach results from a desire to build a business in the country-market as quickly as possible and by an initial desire to minimize risk coupled with the need to learn about the country and market from a low base of knowledge.

International markets evolve rapidly and very often companies struggle to keep up in terms of their strategy. It is therefore reasonable to deduce that many companies’ international operations will consist of a collage of country market operations that pursue different objectives at any one time. This, in turn, suggests that most companies would adopt different entry modes for different markets. More commonly, however, is for companies to evolve a template that is followed in almost all markets. This usually starts with market entry via an indirect distribution channel, usually a local independent distributor or agent.

The factors leading to the wide acceptability of international business are:

  1. Globalization of economics: The policy of liberalization was adopted which led to the globalization of various economics including the former communist countries and socialist pattern of the society.
Read the rest

Importance of Understanding Culture in International Business

As described by the famous author Edgar Schein, the culture in reference to the corporate world is the different corporation’s learning that is developed by different discoveries, invention and the development for handling the internal and the external issue effectively. These learning and development should be successful enough to be passed and taught to the coming and joining employees for handling such affairs in the future. He also remarked the famous quote, “the culture has a same meaning to the group what personality has to with individual”. Also it is well understood in the current era of global market that a successful multinational company has to have an in-depth knowledge of the environment and the different cultural background of the different countries and regions in which it is operating to have a considerable amount of success.

For any of the successful MNC, it is very essential to understand the different cultural distinctions between the different cultures. The selling of same kinds of products in the markets that are entirely different in terms of their cultural backgrounds has always proven to be quite a tough task. Also, the product or services should not violate any rule or regulation based on the culture of the country it is operating. The promotional campaigns and the mode of the advertisements also should be designed according to the cultural background of the region it is going to be launched or shown. If these things is not taken into the marketing strategy, the product which had been very much successful in one country, may even fail in the other.… Read the rest

Cultural Sensitivity is Crucial Factor in Company’s International Business Success

Due to progress in communication, transformation and technologies which have performed in development of world’s economy, people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds are now communicating, meeting and doing business with each other more than ever. As there is increase in business activities between people from different nations, cultures, languages and backgrounds, companies who are operating internationally or which are going to be a global they have to concentrate on many factors to be a successful in international market. One of the significant factors among them is a culture. For the success of any business in variety of countries or regions it requires to have understanding of how cultural differences across and within nations can affect the way business is practiced. The main determinants of culture are religion, political philosophy, economical philosophy, education, language, social structure etc. Businesses have to understand and match with all this cultural determinants, as cultural sensitivity is a crucial factor in a company’s international business success.

Cultural sensitivity means being aware that cultural differences and similarities exist and have an effect on values, learning and behavior. Culture is defined by many authors as “collective programming of the minds that distinguishes the members of one group of people from another. It is in various forms which cover the areas such as politics, history, faith, mentality, behavior and lifestyle. To be a successful in international markets any business must have to determine the specific role culture plays in the company’s product markets. Culture may influence business success by consumer culture and business culture.… Read the rest