Benefits and Costs of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to Host Country

Foreign Direct Investment plays an important part in global entrepreneurs and businesses. The FDI can easily provide a firm with new business environments and markets, cheaper production facilities, usage chances of newest technologies, cheaper financing and skills. There is an significant difference between FDI and foreign portfolio investment (FPI). Foreign portfolio investment means investing of individuals, companies, or policy makers of a nation in foreign fiscal tools (for example government bonds, foreign stocks) making an important wealth piece in a foreign entrepreneurship is not involved. There are two strategic kinds of FDI: Horizontal foreign direct investment : If FDI is made in way which in same sector as a company have activity in at home. Vertical foreign direct investment: If a company or multi national establishment (MNE) supplies production resources for a company’s local transactions, or this kind of foreign direct investment can take place with selling the final productContinue reading

Implications of Asset Securitization

Asset securitization can be defined as the partial or complete segregation of a specific set of cash flows from a corporation’s other assets and the issuance of securities based on these cash flows, i.e exchanging one asset for another. The types of financial assets involved in asset securitization transactions are often receivables. The practice of securitization originated with the sale of securities backed by residential mortgages, but the framework of asset securitization has rapidly expanded from its initial root of mortgages and receivables to other more variable cash flows in home equity loan markets, commercial loan markets, credit card receivables, auto loans, small-business loans, corporate loans, state lottery winnings, and litigation settlement payments and other types of loans. Asset securitization is the transformation of a mix of illiquid individual loans that are combined into relatively similar pools and transformed into highly liquid bonds traded in securities markets and usually, whenContinue reading

Capital Supply and International Financial Markets

Capital flows have traditionally focused on the ‘demand side’ of emerging market financing by examining current account balances, which are equal to the net external financing needs of countries, and then seeking to identify ways in which these financing needs could be met and on what terms. However, this approach ignores trends in capital flows into and out of the major advanced economies, which are the source of most cross-border capital and the main reason why gross flows have risen so dramatically relative to net flows. These flows are typically in a securitized form and, as such, are susceptible to trading in active secondary markets. By one estimate, investors in the mature markets of Europe, the United States and Japan have been accumulating securities issued outside their own countries at the rate of about US$1 trillion a year (Smith 2000). This means that international capital flows are increasingly determined byContinue reading

Centralized Cash Management Operations of Multinational Corporations

International money managers attempt to attain on a worldwide basis the traditional domestic objectives of cash management: (1) bringing the company’s cash resources within control as quickly and efficiently as possible and (2) achieving the optimum conservation and utilization of these funds. Accomplishing the first goal requires establishing accurate, timely forecasting and reporting systems, improving cash collections and disbursements, and decreasing the cost of moving funds among affiliates. The second objective is achieved by minimizing the required level of cash balances, making money available when and where it is needed, and increasing the risk-adjusted return on those funds that can be invested. Restrictions and typical currency controls imposed by governments inhibit cash movements across national boundaries. These restrictions are different from one country to other. Managers require lot of foresight, planning, and anticipation. Other complicating factors in international money management include multiple tax jurisdictions, multiple currencies, and relative absence ofContinue reading

Multinational Corporations and Accounts Receivable Management

Multinational Corporations (MNC’s) grant trade credit to customers, both domestically and internationally, because they expect the investment in receivables to be profitable, either by expanding sales volume or by retaining sales that otherwise would be lost to competitors. Some companies also earn a profit on the financing charges they levy on credit sales. The need to scrutinize credit terms is particularly important in countries experiencing rapid rates of inflation. The incentive for customers to defer payment, liquidating their debts with less valuable money in the future, is great. Furthermore, credit standards abroad are often more relaxed than in the home market, especially in countries lacking alternative sources of credit for small customers. To remain competitive, MNCs may feel compelled to loosen their own credit standards. Finally, the compensation system in many companies tends to reward higher sales more than it penalizes an increased investment in accounts receivable. Local managers frequentlyContinue reading

Definition of Forfaiting

Forfaiting is a specialized form of trade finance that allows the exporter to offer extended credit to the importer. Under forfaiting , the importer gives the exporter a bundle of bills of exchange or promissory notes covering the principal amount as well as the interest. Each tranche of the notes fall due at different points of time in the future, e.g. every six months, extending up to several years. The notes are backed by an aval or guarantee provided by a reputed bank in the importer’s country. The exporter can then discount these notes without recourse with banks who specialize in the forfaiting business to generate an immediate cash flow. This means that if either the importer or the guaranteeing bank fails to pay when notes fall due, the forfaiter cannot ask the exporter for reimbursement. The credit risk is assumed entirely by the forfaiter. The forfaiter in turn, mayContinue reading