Risk and Return in Investments

There are different motives for investment. The most prominent among all is to earn a return on investment. However, selecting investments on the basis of return in not enough. The fact is that most investors invest their funds in more than one security suggest that there are other factors, besides return, and they must be considered. The investors not only like return but also dislike risk. So, what is required is: Clear understanding of what risk and return are, What creates them, and How can they be measured? Return: The return is the basic motivating force and the principal reward in the investment process. The return may be defined in terms of (i) realized return, i.e., the return which has been earned, and (ii) expected return, i.e., the return which the investor anticipates to earn over some future investment period. The expected return is a predicted or estimated return andContinue reading

Commodity Markets and Futures Trading

The process of trading commodities is also known as futures trading. Futures Contracting is an important activity for any economy to meet raw material requirements, to facilitate storage as a profitable economic activity and also to manage supply and demand risk, forward contracts gives rise to price risk, so to the need of price risk management, unlike other kinds of investments, such as stocks and bonds, when investor trade futures, he/she do not actually buy anything or own anything. He/she are speculating on the future direction of the price in the commodity in which they are trading. This is like a bet on future price direction. The terms “buy” and “sell” merely indicate the direction you expect future prices will take. In other word Forward/Future trading is an activity in which a trader takes a position in an equity in advance of an action which he/she knows his/her brokerage willContinue reading

Stock – Meaning and Definition

Stock is the share in the ownership of the company. Stock represents the claim on the company’s assets and earnings. In other words, it means, the more the stock, the ownership stake in the company becomes greater. The stock is represented by a stock certificate which is a document that proves the ownership in the company. Few years ago when the person wanted to buy or sell shares, he/she physically took the certificates to the brokerage firm. But now information technology has increased, because of which this stock document is stored electronically. Now trading with a click of mouse or a phone call has made transacting easier. The stock certificate is considered worthless if there is no claim on the ownership of the company’s assets and earnings. Another important feature of stock is its limited liability. It means as the owner of the stock, he/she is not responsible for theContinue reading

Bonus Issue of Shares – Meaning, Benefits and Motives

BONUS ISSUE OF SHARES When we invest the share capital in a business, we do so with the expectation of getting back not only our invested capital, but also a proportionate share of the surplus generated from operations, after all the other stakeholders have been paid their dues. Thus, collectively the business owes its shareholders, their invested capital as well as the surplus generated from operations. But in reality, while the business may pay us annual dividends, seldom is this surplus fully distributed away as dividends. Thus, the surplus which is retained in the business is still owed to us. This retained surplus is also reflected as retained earnings or reserves in the Balance sheet of a company. Together, share capital and reserves are known as equity or the net worth of a company. Over a period of time, the retained earnings of a firmContinue reading

Technical Analysis of Stocks

Definition of Technical Analysis Technical analysis is the process of utilizing past trading information and stock price trends related to a specific security, and then equating those to how other likewise investments have responded throughout history to similar patterns. Further, when a pattern is identified, the investor can predict that the future pricing of the target investment is likely to respond in a similar manner to patterns observed earlier. Technical analysis of stocks assumes that current prices should represent all known information about the markets. Prices not only reflect intrinsic facts, they also represent human emotion and the pervasive mass psychology and mood of the moment. Prices are, in the end, a function of supply and demand. However, on a moment to moment basis, human emotions,fear, greed, panic, hysteria, elation, etc. also dramatically affect prices. Markets may move based upon people’s expectations, not necessarily facts. A market “technician” attempts toContinue reading

International Equity Investments – Euro Equities

International equities or the Euro equities do not represent debt, nor do they represent foreign direct investment. They are comparatively a new financial instruments representing foreign portfolio equity investment. In this case, the investor gets the dividend and not the interest as in case of debt instruments. On the other hand, it does not have the same pattern of voting right that it does have in the case of foreign direct investment. In fact, international equities are a compromise between the debt and the foreign direct investment. They are the instruments that are presently on the preference list of the investors as well as the issuers. Benefits to Issuer/ Investor The issuers issue international equities under certain conditions and with certain objectives. First, when the domestic capital market is already flooded with its shares, the issuing company does not like toad further stress to the domestic stock of shares sinceContinue reading