Types of Management Control

Management Control Types There are three major types of management control over behavior in organizations. Each control has its own standards, its own monitoring system and its own system for corrective action when behavior does not meet standards. These three types of management controls are given below: Organizational Controls. The organizational controls refer to the formal rules and standard operating procedures that are communicated throughout the organization. Such controls are concerned with the total organization and may, therefore, be called administrative controls. The direction for organizational controls comes from the plans and purposes of the organization. In business organizations, this direction is often expressed in terms of market share, cost reduction, return on investment etc. These may be translated into specific performance measures such as sales quotation standard costs and budgets. Rewards for meeting standards, vary from a word of praise to salary increase and promotion. Social Controls. Social orContinue reading

Organizational Chart – Meaning, Definition, Features, Types, Advantages and Limitations

Organizational structure of a company can be shown in a chart. Such chart indicates how different departments are interlinked on the basis of authority and responsibility. It is a simple diagrammatic method of describing an Organizational structure. It indicates how the departments are linked together on the basis of authority and responsibility. Such organizational chart provides information of the organizational structure at a glance. Organizational chart is like a blue print of a building. It indicates the number and types of departments, superior-subordinate relationship, chain of command and communication. According to George Terry, organizational chart is “a diagrammatical form which shows important aspects of an organization, including the major functions and their respective relationships, the channels of supervision and the relative authority of each employee who is in-charge of each respective function”. Features of Organizational Chart The definition noted above indicates the following features of Organizational charts: Organizational chart is aContinue reading

Attitudes – Definition, Components, Sources and Types

Attitudes can be defined as an individual’s feelings about or inclinations towards other persons, objects, events, or activities. Attitudes encompass such affective feelings as likes and dislikes, and satisfactions and dissatisfactions. Our needs, past experiences, self-concept, and personality shape the beliefs, feelings, and opinion we hold towards the perceived world. Once we have formed our likes and dislikes, we generally cling on to them and find it difficult to change our attitudes, unless we make a conscious and determined effort to do so. An interesting phenomenon is that our values shape our attitudes. Traditionally, behavioral scientists have divided attitudes into two major groups: i) those that are cognitive (for example, beliefs or expectations about cause-effect relationships between events) and ii) those that are evaluative (for example, liking or disliking for event). An example of a cognitive attitude would be an employee’s belief that superior job performance would be rewarded byContinue reading

Perception – Meaning, Definition, Process and Influencing Factors

Meaning and Definition of Perception Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Perception is not just what one sees with eyes. It is a much more complex process by which an individual selectively absorbs or assimilates the stimuli in the environment, cognitively organizes the perceived information in a specific fashion and then interprets the information to make an assessment about what people select, organize, and interpret or attach meaning to events happening in the environment. Since perception is subjective process, different people may perceive the same environment differently based on what particular aspects of the situation they choose. For example, some employees may perceive the work place as great if it has favorable working conditions, good pay. Others may perceive it as great if it has challenging assignments and opportunity to grow. ManagersContinue reading

Shortcuts in Judging Others – Meaning, Types and Applications

Meaning of Shortcuts in Judging Others In perceiving the stimuli in our environment, people are likely to make so many errors and ended up with poor results. Some of those errors are stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, distortions, attributions, projections etc. Each of these errors is dysfunctional for good decision making and management. Since subjective emotions, judgmental attitudes, and distortion of facts are common in perceiving any situation, we have tried to identify ways in which we can minimize perceptual biases. The need for managers to accurately perceive the environment and how manages can sharpen their perceptual skill are vital in enhancing perceptual skills. People tend to follow a number of shortcut methods when observing others and making judgment of others activities. These techniques are to some extent valuable and allow us to make accurate perceptions rapidly and provide valid data for making predictions. However, they are not foolproof. However,Continue reading

What is Personality? Meaning, Definition, Determinants and Traits

People tend to have a general notion that personality refers to a personal appearance with charming smile, or outlook. But psychologists view the concept as dynamic in nature concerned with growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. Personality can be defined as the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. Personality is defined as relatively stable and enduring characteristics that determine our thoughts, feelings and behavior. Personality is a complex phenomenon and there are various perspectives of personality construct. One common and simple definition of Personality is: It is the consistent psychological patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with others and the situations they encounter. Research studies shows that individual’s personality is more or less consistent, lasting, and can remain substantially constant across all the situations and time. But there are individualContinue reading