Referencing a Research Report

References must be explicitly given in the research report. Bibliography is one type of referencing a research report and this has been already dealt. Other type of referencing is the foot notes. Referencing using Footnotes Footnotes are meant to give complete bibliographical references and to provide the reader with information to enable him consult sources independently. These may be placed at the foot of a page or at the end of every chapter. When footnotes are given at the foot of the page, they are to be separated from the text by a fifteen space solid line drawn from the left margin and one double space below the last line of the text. If given at the end of a chapter, a centered heading ‘FOOTNOTES’ is necessary. Reference to footnotes is made by the use of superscripts i.e., numerals raised by one-half space. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively through aContinue reading

Steps Involved in Drafting a Research Report

A research report must be well drafted so that it is seriously taken by others and all that have to be said are well said. Reader orientation, purpose orientation, time orientation, technology orientation, etc are all needed. The steps in writing a research report are presented below. 1. Organization of Thought Organization of thought as to how the report be presented is the most fundamental starting point in the journey of preparation of a research report. Ideas come before the mind eye. These are thought over again and a frame of presentation is planned. This plan does not in itself constitute style, but it is the foundation. 2. Acquaintance with the Research Full acquaintance with research is needed. This is facilitated by notes. It is desirable to make notes on separate cards or slips called form-facet. Accuracy and Adequacy are required – The second facet of mastery over notes consistsContinue reading

Preparing a Research Report

The research report is considered as a major component of the research work, because through this report the research problem, the research design, the analysis and findings are brought to the knowledge of the world. The research report converts the research work into a public asset from its earlier state of private asset. The research report shows the readers the progress in knowledge made in the specific area or discipline. The report by bringing to light the new frontiers of knowledge enhances the society’s intellectual well-being. The report by highlighting the design and methodology, runs as a fore-runner for future researchers in this or related area. The analyses and interpretations may give a boost to knowledge. The findings and suggestions take the readers into enlightenment from ignorance. Every research must endeavor to achieve this. Research report is a record of the whole of every bit of the research work. ThisContinue reading

Interpretation of Research Data

Interpretation of research data means drawing inference from the collected facts and computed statistics or test statistics. The task of interpretation has two major aspects; The effort to establish continuity in research through linking the results of given study with those of others, and The establishment of some explanatory concepts. In one sense, interpretation is concerned with relationship within the collected data, partially overlapping analysis. Interpretation also extends beyond the data of the study to include the results of other research, theory and hypotheses. Thus, interpretation is the devise through which the factors that seem to explain what has been observed by researchers in the course of the study can be better understood and it also provides a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further research. Process of Interpretation of Research Data The interpretation of research data is not an easy job, rather it requires a greatContinue reading

Methods of Data Processing in Research

Data processing is concerned with editing, coding, classifying, tabulating and charting and diagramming research data. The essence of data processing in research is data reduction. Data reduction involves winnowing out the irrelevant from the relevant data and establishing order from chaos and giving shape to a mass of data. Data processing in research consists of five important steps. They are: 1. Editing of Data Editing is the first step in data processing. Editing is the process of examining the data collected in questionnaires/schedules to detect errors and omissions and to see that they are corrected and the schedules are ready for tabulation. When the whole data collection is over a final and a thorough check up is made. Mildred B. Parten in his book points out that the editor is responsible for seeing that the data are; Accurate as possible, Consistent with other facts secured, Uniformly entered, As complete asContinue reading

Pre-Testing Research Data Collection Instruments

The tool or instrument of data collection namely the schedule or the questionnaire should be pre-tested before adopted for data collection on the study. Pre-testing simply means, testing the validity, reliability, practicability and sensitivity of the tool before it is used for actual data collection. The only way to gain assurance that questions are unambiguous is to try them on a selected small group of prospective respondents. Process of Pre-testing Pre-testing can be done in parts. Different sub-parts in the main part of the questionnaire/schedule can be differently pre-tested. So a series of small pre-test on different units of the tool can be done. A full scale pre-test of the whole tool can be done if needed finally or in lieu of the series of pre-tests is small bits. Pre-testing must be done on a sample that is representatives of the population. May be 10 to 12 respondents for pre-testingContinue reading